Guide Guide

Crypto ABC

Our Crypto ABC glossary is designed to be your comprehensive guide, allowing you to explore the vast landscape of cryptocurrencies from A to Z

Understanding the significance of navigating the complex world of digital assets and distributed ledger technology, Wolf Theiss stands ready to assist. Whether our clients are seasoned blockchain enthusiasts or newcomers looking to demystify the jargon, our carefully curated entries will shed light on terms ranging from Abyss token to Zk-SNARKs. As trailblazers in the legal realm of the crypto space, we acknowledge the paramount significance of keeping abreast of the latest developments and innovations. Through the Crypto ABC, our clients can acquire a profound understanding of key concepts, protocols, tokens, and technologies that underpin this ever-evolving industry.

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0x The 0x protocol is an open-source protocol built on the Ethereum blockchain that facilitates the decentralized exchange of tokens and assets. It aims to create a standard for the interoperability of cryptocurrency tokens by allowing developers to build decentralized exchanges (DEXs) and other applications on top of it. The 0x protocol enables trustless peer-to-peer trading, reduces costs, and promotes liquidity across various decentralized exchanges. The 0x token, also called ZRX, is the native utility token of the protocol.
10x The term 10x refers to the tenfold increase of an investment, this being the goal of many speculatively oriented crypto investors. 10x is used both as a noun and as a verb.
51% Attack  51% Attack refers to an attack on a cryptocurrency blockchain by a group of miners who have control over more than 51% of the hash rate (whereas hash rate refers to the computational power of a blockchain). The group controlling a majority of a network’s hash rate will be able to block, reverse etc. transactions.
51% Attack Protection 51% Attack Protection refers to security measures implemented in a blockchain network to prevent a single entity or group from controlling a majority of the network’s computing power. It ensures the integrity and decentralization of the network by making it extremely difficult for an attacker to manipulate transactions or disrupt the consensus mechanism.


AbyssToken AbyssToken refers to a cryptocurrency token called “The Abyss” token. The Abyss is a digital distribution platform for online video games that utilizes blockchain technology. The platform aims to provide various services such as secure and transparent transactions, player reward systems, and advertising capabilities for game developers. The Abyss token serves as the native currency within the platform, used for in-platform transactions, rewards, and investments. It is designed to incentivize and enhance the ecosystem of The Abyss by providing benefits to its users and promoting the growth of the platform.
Accidental Fork The simultaneous finding by at least two miners of the same valid block
Account Tree In the context of cryptocurrency, an account tree is a data structure used by some blockchain-based networks to store and organize user account information.
Address In the context of cryptocurrencies, an address refers to a string of alphanumeric characters that serves as a destination for cryptocurrency transactions. Each cryptocurrency has its own unique address format. When a user wants to receive cryptocurrency, they provide their address to the sender, who then sends the cryptocurrency to that address. It is important to note that cryptocurrency addresses are case sensitive and one wrong character can result in the loss of funds, so it is important to double-check before sending any cryptocurrency to an address.
Administrator An administrator is a person or a group of people who are responsible for managing and maintaining the blockchain network of a particular cryptocurrency. Their jobs include upgrading the blockchain software, adding new features, handling security issues, and making sure the system runs smoothly. The administrator’s role is crucial in ensuring the stability and security of the cryptocurrency network.
Aelf Aelf is a blockchain platform that aims to provide a highly efficient and scalable infrastructure for decentralized applications (DApps). It utilizes a unique side chain architecture, where each DApp runs on its own side chain, allowing for increased performance and flexibility. Aelf also incorporates advanced features such as parallel processing, resource isolation, and cross-chain communication to enhance the overall functionality of the platform. Its goal is to enable seamless and secure interaction between different DApps while maintaining high levels of performance and scalability.
Aeternity Aeternity is a blockchain platform that aims to enable scalable and efficient smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps). It utilizes a hybrid consensus mechanism combining proof-of-work and proof-of-stake algorithms to enhance security, scalability, and sustainability. Aeternity focuses on integrating innovative features such as state channels, oracles, and naming system to provide a robust infrastructure for the development of high-performance DApps. By leveraging these functionalities, Aeternity aims to support a wide range of use cases including finance, governance, gaming, and more on its decentralized platform.
AFK “AFK” stands for “Away From Keyboard” and is commonly used in the crypto community to indicate that a person is temporarily unavailable or not actively participating in online activities. It implies that the individual is not actively monitoring or engaging with their crypto investments or activities at that moment.
Agreement Ledger An agreement ledger is a record-keeping system that tracks agreements or contracts between parties. It is a type of ledger that contains all the critical information about an agreement, such as the terms, conditions, signatures, and other relevant details.
Aion Aion is a blockchain platform that aims to address the scalability and interoperability challenges faced by existing blockchain networks. It seeks to create a multi-tier blockchain network that allows different blockchains to connect and communicate with each other. Aion aims to enable the development of decentralized applications (DApps) that can interact seamlessly across different blockchains, improving overall scalability and enhancing the potential of blockchain technology.
Airdrop Airdrop refers to the distribution of free tokens or coins to a large number of wallet addresses. This is typically done by a project or a cryptocurrency team as a way to promote their token and create awareness. Airdrops are often used to reward loyal users or to attract new users to a particular project or platform. The tokens are usually distributed evenly among eligible participants, and the process can be automated through smart contracts. Airdrops can also serve as a marketing strategy to increase the user base and liquidity of a cryptocurrency.
Air gapping Air gapping refers to the practice of keeping a computer or device physically disconnected from any network or external connections to enhance security and protect sensitive crypto-related information from unauthorized access or hacking attempts. It is commonly used to isolate offline crypto wallets or cold storage devices to minimize the risk of cyber threats.
Algorithm An algorithm is a set of instructions or a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or achieving a particular goal. It is generally a set of rules that dictate how a task or calculation must be performed. Algorithms are used in a wide variety of applications, from computer programming and machine learning to mathematics and problem-solving in general. An algorithm might be written in natural language, in a programming language, or in other similar formats.
All Time High (ATH) The All Time High (ATH) refers to the highest trading price a crypto asset has ever reached. The ATHs of crypto assets can be found on websites such as CoinGeck or CoinMarketCap. At the time of writing, bitcoin had an ATH of USD 69,000.
All Time Low (ATL) The All Time Low (ATH) refers to the lowest trading price a crypto asset has ever reached. The ATLs of crypto assets can be found on websites such as CoinGeck or CoinMarketCap.
Altcoin Altcoin is a term used to refer to any cryptocurrency that is not Bitcoin. It is a combination of the words “alternative” and “coin.” Altcoins were created as alternatives to Bitcoin, often with the intention of improving upon its limitations or exploring new functionalities. Some examples of altcoins include Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, and Bitcoin Cash. Altcoins typically have their own separate blockchain networks and may have unique features, use cases, or governance structures compared to Bitcoin.
Altcoin The term altcoin stands for alternative coin. Some people say that an altcoin is any crypto asset that is not bitcoin. Other people use a definition pursuant to which an altcoin is any crypto asset that is not bitcoin or Ether.
Alternative History Attack An Alternative History Attack is a type of attack in which an attacker tries to alter the course of history by changing the data that is stored in a blockchain. This attack is possible because a blockchain is essentially a distributed ledger that is maintained by a network of nodes. If an attacker gains control of a sufficient number of nodes, they can rewrite the history of the blockchain and change its contents. This can allow them to steal funds or commit other types of fraud. To prevent alternative history attacks, blockchains use consensus mechanisms that require a majority of nodes to agree on the contents of the ledger.
Alternative Trading System (ATS) An Alternative Trading System (ATS) is a trading platform that doesn’t operate as a traditional stock exchange but offers an alternative way of trading securities, such as stocks, bonds, options, and futures. An ATS matches buyers and sellers of securities using electronic systems rather than through a centralized exchange. ATSs are typically used by institutional investors, hedge funds, and high-frequency traders. They are regulated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under Regulation ATS.
altszn (altcoin season) Altcoin season refers to a period of time in which alternative coins outperform Bitcoin.
AML AML stands for “Anti-Money Laundering”, which is a set of regulations, rules, and procedures designed to prevent the illegal generation of income through criminal activities like drug trafficking, embezzlement, or corruption. These regulations aim to detect, prevent, and report suspicious activities related to financial transactions, including the reporting of large cash transactions, monitoring customer transactions, and conducting background checks on customers.
AML (Anti Money Laundering) AML (Anti Money Laundering) refers to a set of laws, regulations, and procedures aimed at preventing the illegal practice of disguising the origins of illicitly obtained money. Money laundering involves the process of making illegally obtained funds appear legitimate by passing them through a complex series of transactions. AML measures are implemented by financial institutions, such as banks and cryptocurrency exchanges, to detect and deter money laundering activities. These measures require institutions to verify the identity of their customers, monitor transactions for suspicious activities, and report any suspicious transactions to the authorities.
Anchor An anchor can refer to a stable asset, such as a stablecoin, that is pegged to the value of a fiat currency or another asset. The purpose of an anchor is to provide stability and reduce volatility for cryptocurrency holders and traders.
Announcement (ANN) An Announcement (ANN) in the context of cryptocurrency typically refers to the first post about a new cryptocurrency project or coin on a cryptocurrency forum or platform. This initial post often contains detailed information about the project’s goals, team members, technical specifications, and other pertinent details.
anon The term ‘anon’ owes its popularity within the Internet from the website 4chan. Users of 4Chan often keep their identities anonymous and refer to each other as ‘anon’.
Anonymity Anonymity in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the ability of a person or entity to perform transactions without revealing their identity to others on the blockchain network. This means that the user can conduct financial transactions without anyone else knowing who they are, or without having to provide their personal information to anyone else.
Anonymous Transactions When transacting anonymously, one does not have any information on the identity of the counterparty and vice versa. Crypto transactions allege to provide for a higher degree of anonymity, which is also why they have been heavily scrutinized by regulators and authorities tasked with combating money laundering and terrorist financing.
apeing Apeing refers to investing quickly into a hot new crypto project without doing the necessary research, sort of like a monkey doing what everyone else is doing without thinking. Apeing is what degens do, and very much a part of crypto culture. 
Ape / Apeing in Ape or Apeing in refers to the act of investing in a cryptocurrency project without conducting thorough research or due diligence. It often implies following others’ investment decisions blindly, without fully understanding the risks or fundamentals of the project. This term is commonly used to caution against making impulsive or uninformed investment choices in the crypto space.
Application Program Interface (API) An Application Programming Interface, or API, is a set of rules that allows different software applications or systems to communicate with each other. API acts as an intermediary between two systems and defines how they should interact with each other in order to exchange data and perform tasks. APIs enable developers to create new applications that can utilize the functionality of existing software services, without having to understand or write the underlying code for those services themselves.
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is a type of specialized machinery used for crypto mining, for example for bitcoin. Before the current era of ASICs, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Central Processing Units (CPUs) were used for mining. 
Arbitrage Arbitrage is a trading strategy in finance where an individual or entity takes advantage of price differences for the same asset in difference markets to make a risk-free profit.
Ardor Ardor is a blockchain platform that offers scalable and efficient solutions for businesses and developers to create and deploy their own decentralized applications (dApps) and tokens. It utilizes a unique parent-child chain architecture to enhance scalability and reduce blockchain bloat, making it a popular choice for enterprise blockchain applications.
ARK ARK is a blockchain platform that aims to bridge different blockchain networks, allowing for easy communication and interoperability between them. It provides tools and services for developers to build decentralized applications (dApps) and enables seamless transfer of data and assets across multiple blockchains.
Asset An asset is anything that has value and can be owned by an individual, company, or organization. It can be tangible, such as a car, house, or equipment, or intangible, such as intellectual property, patents, or trademarks. Assets are typically used to generate income, enhance business operations, or serve as a store of value.
Asset Token An Asset Token is a type of cryptocurrency that represents ownership of a real-world asset, like gold or real estate. It’s a way for investors to invest in assets without physically possesing them, making traditional asset markets more accessible and liquid.
Astroturfing Astroturfing is the practice of praising a product publicly without revealing a personal affiliation with the product.
Asymmetric-Key Cryptography Asymmetric-Key Cryptography, also known as public-key cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses a pair of different keys – a public key and a private key – for secure communication between two parties. The sender uses the recipient’s public key to encrypt the information they want to send, which can only be decrypted using the recipient’s private key. This ensures that only the intended recipient can read the message, as they are the only ones who have access to the private key needed to decrypt it.
Atomic Swap Atomic Swap refers to a peer-to-peer exchange of different cryptocurrencies directly between two parties without the involvement of a centralized exchange or third party. It allows users to swap their digital assets in a trustless manner, meaning that the exchange is executed securely and transparently without the need for intermediaries or escrow services. Atomic Swaps use smart contracts and cryptographic techniques to ensure that both parties fulfill their respective obligations, enabling the exchange of cryptocurrencies on different blockchain networks seamlessly and efficiently. This technology promotes decentralization, privacy, and eliminates the risks associated with central exchanges, such as hacks and theft.
Atomic Swap During an atomic swap two parties trade cryptocurrencies directly and without using an exchange.
Audius Audius is a decentralized music streaming platform that allows artists to share their music directly with listeners, while leveraging blockchain technology to ensure fair and transparent royalty payments. It provides a secure and censorship-resistant environment for music distribution and consumption.
Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that superimposes computer-generated images, sounds, and other data onto a user’s view of the real world. AR allows users to see the real world around them, augmented with virtual objects or information, creating a highly interactive and immersive experience.
Augur Augur is a decentralized prediction market platform built on blockchain technology. It enables users to create and participate in markets to forecast the outcome of real-world events, providing a decentralized and transparent platform for crowd-sourced predictions.
Automated Market Maker An Automated Market Maker (AMM) is a type of decentralized exchange protocol that utilizes algorithms to automatically determine the price of assets in a given market. These algorithms are typically based on a mathematical model that takes into account the supply and demand of the assets being traded, as well as other factors such as liquidity and volatility.
Avatar An Avatar is a computer-generated representation of a person or character. It can be a two-dimensional image or a three-dimensional model that is used in virtual reality, video games, or social media platforms.


B2B B2B stands for “Business-to-Business” and refers to transactions and interactions that occure between two businesses rather than between a business and a consumer.
B2C B2C stands for “Business-to-Consumer” and refers to transactions and interactions that occure between a business and individual consumers.
Bag A slang phrase for a person’s portfolio of Tokens or Coins. Most people refer to their holdings as a Bag only when they have a considerable amount of one Cryptocurrency, but Bag can be of different size
Bagholder A person who does not sell their Bag of Coins ir Tokens, despite market trends telling them to
bags A slang phrase for a person’s different portfolios of Tokens or Coins. See definition of “Bag”
Balance Attack Intergroup communication between subgroups with comparable mining power is momentarily disrupted by an attacker. During this period, the attacker mines blocks in one subgroup, say the “block subgroup”, and issues transactions in another subgroup, say the “transaction subgroup”, until the block subgroup’s tree significantly outweighs the transaction subgroup’s tree
Balancer Balancer is a decentralized protocol that allows users to create and manage automated portfolio rebalancing strategies for their cryptocurrency holdings. It provides liquidity and enables users to trade and earn fees by contributing to liquidity pools, ensuring the efficient allocation of assets within the crypto ecosystem.
Bancor Bancor is a decentralized liquidity protocol that enables the seamless conversion and exchange of cryptocurrencies without the need for traditional exchanges. It uses smart contracts and automated market makers to provide continuous liquidity, making it easier for users to trade and access a wide range of digital assets in the crypto market.
Bandwidth Bandwidth refers to the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted over a network connection in a certain amount of time. It is typically measured in bits per second (bps) or bytes per second (Bps). The higher the bandwidth, the more data that can be transmitted in a given amount of time.
Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) is a United States law that requires financial institutions to detect and prevent money laundering. This law requires financial institutions to keep records of cash transactions over $10,000, report suspicious activity to the government, and verify the identity of their customers.
Basic Attention Token Basic Attention Token (BAT) is a cryptocurrency that is built on the Ethereum blockchain. It is designed to be used within the Brave browser, which aims to revolutionize digital advertising and user attention on the internet. BAT is used to reward users for their attention and engagement with online advertisements and content. The token enables a more transparent and efficient digital advertising ecosystem by eliminating middlemen and allowing advertisers to directly reward users for their attention. With BAT, advertisers can purchase ad space and target specific audiences, while users have the option to receive BAT tokens for viewing ads. Users can then use these tokens to support their favorite websites or content creators, or they can choose to exchange them for other cryptocurrencies or fiat money. The aim of BAT is to create a fairer and more privacy-focused model for online advertising, where users have control over their data and are rewarded for their attention, while advertisers can benefit from more accurate targeting and higher user engagement.
Bear market “Bear market” refers to a situation in a financial market where the prices of assets, such as stocks or cryptocurrencies, are falling or expected to fall. This term is used to describe a downward trend or pessimistic sentiment in the market, indicating that investors are generally selling or expecting further decline in the value of those assets.
Bearish Bearish is a term used in the crypto market to describe a negative or pessimistic sentiment towards the price of a cryptocurrency or the overall market. It suggests that investors anticipate a downward trend or a decline in prices, and may act accordingly by selling or shorting their positions.
Binance Coin Binance Coin (BNB) is a cryptocurrency that was created by the popular cryptocurrency exchange called Binance. BNB is used as a utility token within the Binance ecosystem. It serves multiple purposes, such as being used to pay for trading fees on the Binance exchange, participate in token sales on the Binance Launchpad, and even serve as a payment method for certain merchants. BNB has gained significant popularity and value since its launch, and it continues to be actively used within the Binance community.
Bit A bit is the smallest unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications. It is typically represented as a 0 or 1 in binary language and is used to store and transmit data. It stands for binary digit and is a fundamental concept in computer science.
Bitcoin Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency, also known as a cryptocurrency. It was created in 2009 by an anonymous person or group of people using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin operates on a technology called blockchain, which is a public ledger that records all transactions made with the currency. Unlike traditional currencies, Bitcoin is not controlled by any government or central authority. It relies on cryptographic principles to secure transactions and control the creation of new coins. Bitcoins can be bought, sold, and exchanged for other currencies or goods and services. One of the key features of Bitcoin is its limited supply. There will only ever be 21 million bitcoins in existence, which makes it a deflationary currency. This scarcity is designed to increase its value over time. Bitcoin has gained popularity as an alternative investment and a medium of exchange. It offers advantages such as low transaction fees, fast international transfers, and the potential for anonymity. However, its price is highly volatile, which makes it prone to sudden and significant price fluctuations.
Bitcoin Cash Bitcoin Cash is a cryptocurrency that was created as a result of a split from the original Bitcoin network. This split, known as a “hard fork,” occurred in August 2017. Bitcoin Cash was created with the intention to address some perceived limitations of the original Bitcoin, such as scalability and transaction speed. Bitcoin Cash operates on a similar blockchain technology as Bitcoin but has a larger block size, allowing for faster and cheaper transactions. This means that Bitcoin Cash can handle more transactions per second compared to Bitcoin. Bitcoin Cash also aims to prioritize on-chain scaling, meaning that it focuses on increasing the capacity of its blockchain to accommodate more transactions. The proponents of Bitcoin Cash believe that this approach enables it to be more of a peer-to-peer electronic cash system, facilitating everyday transactions, rather than simply a store of value like Bitcoin. Bitcoin Cash has its own separate market value and can be bought, sold, and traded on various cryptocurrency exchanges. However, it’s important to note that Bitcoin Cash is a different cryptocurrency from Bitcoin, even though they share a similar name.
Bitcoin Diamond Bitcoin Diamond is a cryptocurrency that was created through a hard fork from the original Bitcoin network. This means that it shares a similar blockchain history with Bitcoin but has some technical differences. Bitcoin Diamond aims to provide faster transaction confirmation times and lower fees for users. However, it is important to note that Bitcoin Diamond is not as widely accepted or recognized as Bitcoin itself.
Bitcoin Gold Bitcoin Gold is a cryptocurrency that was created as a fork from the original Bitcoin network. It was developed with the goal of making mining more accessible to a wider range of people by using different mining software that is resistant to specialized mining hardware. The main difference between Bitcoin Gold and Bitcoin is the algorithm used for mining, as Bitcoin Gold uses the Equihash algorithm instead of the SHA-256 algorithm. This allows individuals to mine Bitcoin Gold using consumer-grade hardware, leveling the playing field and promoting decentralization in the mining process.
Bitcoin Maximalist A Bitcoin maximalist refers to an individual who strongly believes in the value and dominance of Bitcoin over other cryptocurrencies. They typically advocate for Bitcoin as the superior digital currency and may dismiss or downplay the importance of other cryptocurrencies in the crypto ecosystem.
Bitcoin Standard Transaction Type The Bitcoin Standard Transaction Type (STTx) refers to the type of transaction that is used within the Bitcoin network to transfer bitcoins from one address to another. This type of transaction includes inputs, which are the bitcoins being transferred, and outputs, which are the addresses of the recipients. Each input and output is assigned a specific amount of bitcoins, and the transaction must be verified by the Bitcoin network before it is added to the blockchain ledger. The STTx is a critical component of the Bitcoin protocol and enables the secure transfer and storage of bitcoins.
Bitcoin SV Bitcoin SV, also known as Bitcoin Satoshi Vision, is a cryptocurrency that was created as a result of a hard fork from the Bitcoin Cash network. It was created with the intention of restoring the original vision of Bitcoin outlined by its creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin SV aims to scale the blockchain by increasing the block size limit and focusing on stability and security. It seeks to enable large-scale usage and adoption of the Bitcoin protocol for various applications and industries.
Bitcoin Transaction Locktime Bitcoin Transaction Locktime is a feature in Bitcoin that allows the sender of a transaction to specify a minimum block height or time in the future before the funds can be spent by the recipient. This is useful for transactions that are time-sensitive, such as contracts that require a certain amount of time to pass before they can be executed or payments that are contingent on certain conditions being met.
Bitcoin/bitcoin Bitcoin is a digital currency that was created in 2009 by an unknown person or group using the name Satoshi Nakamoto. It’s different from traditional currencies in that it is decentralized – there is no central bank or single administrator that controls it. Bitcoin transactions are carried out peer-to-peer, meaning that they are directly between users without any intermediaries. In addition, Bitcoin transactions are verified through cryptography and recorded on a public ledger called the blockchain.
BitConnect BitConnect was a cryptocurrency platform that was launched in 2016. It offered a lending and investment program that promised high returns to its users. However, BitConnect turned out to be a fraudulent scheme and was ultimately shut down by authorities. Many people lost their investments in the process. It is important to note that BitConnect is not a legitimate cryptocurrency and should be approached with caution.
BitLicense A BitLicense is a regulatory framework for virtual currency businesses that operate in the state of New York. It was introduced by the New York State Department of Financial Services in 2015 and requires businesses that engage in virtual currency activities, such as buying, selling, or storing cryptocurrencies, to obtain a license in order to operate legally in the state of New York. The aim of the BitLicense is to provide consumer protection, prevent money laundering, and promote financial stability.
BitTorrent BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol that allows users to distribute and download files over the internet. It differs from traditional file sharing methods as it breaks down large files into smaller pieces, which can be downloaded simultaneously from multiple sources, increasing the download speed. This decentralized approach to file sharing eliminates the need for a central server and allows for efficient distribution of large files. BitTorrent has become popular for sharing various types of media, such as movies, music, and software, among a large user base.
Block  A block is a collection of transactions that have been verified and added to the blockchain. Each block has a unique code called a “hash,” which is generated by solving a complex mathematical problem. Once a block is added to the blockchain, it cannot be altered, making the blockchain a secure and trustworthy ledger.
Block Data Block Data refers to a collection of data that is stored in a single block of a computer memory or storage device. In the context of blockchain technology, block data could refer to the information that is stored in a specific block within a particular blockchain. This data could include information related to transactions, account balances, or other data that is relevant to the particular blockchain being used. Each block is linked to the previous one, creating a chain of blocks containing data, hence the name blockchain.
Block Explorer A block explorer is a web-based tool or application that allows users to view and explore the contents of a blockchain. It provides information about transactions, blocks, addresses, and other data related to a particular cryptocurrency, enabling users to track and verify transactions on the blockchain in a transparent manner.
Block Header In the context of blockchain technology, a Block Header is the metadata of a block. It’s a 80-byte data structure that contains important information about the block, including its version, timestamp, target difficulty, nonce, and the Merkle root of the transactions within the block.
Block Height Block Height refers to the number of blocks that have been added to the blockchain. Each block contains a set of transactions and other important data, and they are added to the blockchain in sequential order. The block height is used to keep track of the chronological order of the transactions in the blockchain. It is an important metric in blockchain technology, as it determines the validity and order of transactions in the blockchain.
Block Reward Block reward refers to the amount of cryptocurrency that is given to the miner or network participant who successfully completes the cryptographic problem or task required to verify and add the next block of transactions to the blockchain. This reward serves as an incentive for miners to continue to participate in the network and helps to maintain the security and integrity of the blockchain network.
Block Size Limit The block size limit refers to the maximum size of a block in a blockchain. It determines the number of transactions that can be included in a single block. The block size limit is an important parameter that impacts the scalability and transaction capacity of a blockchain network.
Block Time Block time refers to the amount of time it takes for a new block to be added to a blockchain. In other words, it is the time interval between the creation of two consecutive blocks in a blockchain network. Each block contains a set of transactions, and the block time determines how frequently transactions can be added to the blockchain.
Blockchain A blockchain is a digital ledger that consists of a chain of blocks, where each block contains a list of transactions. Each block in the chain is linked to the previous block using a cryptographic algorithm, forming an immutable, transparent and decentralized record of all transactions. The blockchain technology has gained prominence due to its potential to provide secure and transparent ways for recording and verifying transactions, particularly in the financial sector.
Blockchain 1.0 Blockchain 1.0 refers to the first generation of blockchain technology, which is characterized by the development of the underlying protocol and the creation of the first blockchain network, Bitcoin. It mainly focuses on the ability to perform transactions using digital currency in a decentralized and secure manner without the need for intermediaries like banks.
Blockchain 2.0 Blockchain 2.0 is a newer version of blockchain technology that seeks to expand the capabilities of traditional blockchain. It aims to address some of the challenges faced by first-generation blockchains, such as scalability, interoperability, and programmability. One of the key features of blockchain 2.0 is the ability to support smart contracts, which are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement between buyers and sellers being directly written into lines of code. Smart contracts allow for the automatic execution of transactions and agreements based on pre-defined conditions, without the need for intermediaries. Another important aspect of blockchain 2.0 is its ability to support the creation of decentralized applications (dApps). DApps are software applications that run on a distributed computing system, such as a blockchain network, and are designed to be transparent, secure, and autonomous.
Blockchain 3.0 Blockchain 3.0 refers to the third generation of blockchain technology, which is designed to have more advanced features than previous versions. Blockchain 3.0 systems are generally characterized by their ability to support more complex applications beyond simple digital currencies, such as decentralized finance, supply chain transparency, and many others. Some of the key features of Blockchain 3.0 systems include: 1. Interoperability: The ability for different blockchain networks to communicate with each other seamlessly, creating a more interconnected and efficient ecosystem. 2. Scalability: The ability for blockchain networks to process a large number of transactions quickly and efficiently, without compromising on security or decentralization. 3. Smart Contracts: The ability to create and execute self-executing contracts that do not require intermediaries, increasing transparency and efficiency in many industries.
Blockchain Network User A Blockchain Network User is an individual or entity that interacts with a blockchain network by sending or receiving data or transactions. This user can be a participant in the network who sends or receives cryptocurrency, a developer who deploys smart contracts on the network, or a miner who validates transactions and earns rewards for doing so. In essence, a blockchain network user is anyone who participates in the blockchain ecosystem.
Block-Withholding Attack A Block-Withholding Attack, often abbreviated as BWH, is a type of attack that can occur on a blockchain network. In this attack, a miner or a group of miners withhold a valid block that they have mined from being added to the blockchain. The attacker withholds the block to increase the chances of their own block being added to the blockchain, thereby earning the associated rewards.
boating accident Similar to how one can lose items if the boat tips over during a boating excursion, one can also lose crypto assets unintentionally. Some investors fake a boating accident in order not to have to pay tax or hand over assets in a divorce.. 
Bounty / Bug Bounty In the world of cryptocurrencies, a “Bounty” refers to a reward or payment that is offered to individuals in exchange for performing certain tasks or activities.
Bribery Attack A bribery attack is a situation where an attacker attempts to bribe a significant portion of the participants in a blockchain network to gain control of the network or to manipulate the ledger. This type of attack typically involves offering financial incentives to miners or other network validators in exchange for their cooperation in carrying out malicious activities such as double-spending, censoring transactions, or altering the blockchain history.
Bridge In the context of cryptocurrency, a bridge refers to a mechanism that enables the transfer of digital assets from one blockchain network to another. It essentially serves as a link between two separate networks, allowing users to bridge the gap between them and move their assets across different blockchains.
Brute Force Attack (BFA) A method of trying to decypher cryptographic data by attempting every possible combination for the required password
BSA The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) is a United States law that requires financial institutions to detect and prevent money laundering. This law requires financial institutions to keep records of cash transactions over $10,000, report suspicious activity to the government, and verify the identity of their customers.
BTC BTC is often used as an abbreviation for “Bitcoin”
BUIDL BUIDL is a term often used in the blockchain and cryptocurrency community to encourage people to focus on building, creating and developing useful decentralized applications and systems instead of just speculating or trading cryptocurrencies. The term is derived from the word “build” and is essentially the opposite of “HODL”, which means to hold onto cryptocurrency as a long-term investment strategy.
Bull In the finance community, a bull generally refers to a person who is optimistic about the future performance of the stock market or a specific stock. When someone is bullish on a particular stock or the stock market, it means they believe the price will increase, and they may recommend buying those stocks. The term “bull” comes from the behavior of the animal, which thrusts its horns up into the air, signifying an upward trend in the market.
Bull market A Bull market refers to a financial market where the prices of various assets, such as stocks, bonds, or commodities, are rising or expected to rise. It is typically characterized by investor optimism, high buying activity, and an overall positive sentiment in the market. The term “Bull” is often used to describe an upward or rising market trend. During a Bull market, investors have confidence in the economy and expect continued growth and profit opportunities. As a result, they tend to buy stocks and other assets, driving prices higher. A Bull market is generally associated with strong economic indicators, favorable corporate earnings, and overall market optimism.
Bull Run The term describes a bullish trader and investor behaviour during periods of prospective opportunities in the market, leading to steep increase in demand, potential shortage of supply, further driving up prices. During Bull Runs certain Tokens, targeted by the bull run, experience a rapid and significant increase in prices.
Bullish Bullish is a term used in the crypto market to describe a positive or optimistic sentiment about the price and potential future growth of a cryptocurrency or the overall market. It suggests a belief that prices may rise or that there is an upward trend in the market.
Burn The term “Burn” describes the permanent removal of coins from the circulating coin supply. This approach ensures a permanent reduction of the total supply in the market. In general, Coin Burning is a procedure that is inherent to almost every cryptocurrency and is intended to counteract a decrease in value.
Buy the Dip (BTD) Buying an asset after or during a significant price decrease.
Bytecoin Bytecoin is a type of cryptocurrency that was introduced in 2012. It is designed to be a private and secure digital currency that ensures anonymous transactions. Bytecoin operates on a decentralized blockchain technology similar to other cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. It utilizes a unique cryptographic algorithm called CryptoNote, which provides enhanced privacy by concealing transaction details such as sender and receiver identities and transaction amounts. This privacy-centric approach distinguishes Bytecoin from other cryptocurrencies. However, it is important to note that Bytecoin has faced some controversies and concerns regarding its development and transparency in the past.
Bytom Bytom is a blockchain platform that aims to bridge the gap between the digital and physical worlds by enabling the tokenization and exchange of real-world assets on the blockchain. It provides a decentralized infrastructure for asset management, smart contracts, and cross-chain interoperability, unlocking new possibilities for the transfer and ownership of tangible and intangible assets using cryptocurrency technology.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance  This term refers to the resilience of a system against the Byzantine General’s Problem. A number of different strategies have been proposed and adopted on a case-by-case basis.
Byzantine Generals’ Problem This term refers to a condition where within a computer system one of its components has failed but there is no information available on its faultiness. This presents an issue where concerted action is required from all of the components.


Cardano Cardano is a blockchain platform that aims to provide a secure and scalable infrastructure for the development of decentralized applications and smart contracts. It utilizes a unique consensus algorithm and rigorous academic research to ensure reliability and sustainability in the crypto space.
Casper Casper refers to a consensus algorithm that combines elements of Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Work (PoW) to secure a blockchain network. It aims to enhance the scalability, security, and energy efficiency of the network by introducing a PoS-based finality mechanism while still leveraging the benefits of PoW.
Celo Celo is a blockchain platform that enables fast, secure, and affordable mobile payments and decentralized applications. It aims to create financial inclusion by providing a decentralized infrastructure for users to send, receive, and store digital assets using their mobile phones.
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) A “Central Bank Digital Currency” is electronic money issued by a central bank, either accessible to everyone (retail CBDCs) or only for the settlement of certain transactions (e.g. wholesale CBDCs). Current projects include the “Digital Euro”, “Digital Dollar” and Nigeria was the first country to implement their CBDC, the “eNaira”.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU stands for “Central Processing Unit”. It is the primary component of a computer responsible for executing instructions from software programs. The CPU receives input from various sources such as memory, storage devices, and input/output devices, and processes that data to produce an output. It is often referred to as the brain of the computer, and its speed and performance are critical to the overall performance of the system.
Centralized Centralized refers to a system or organization in which control and decision-making authority are concentrated in a central entity or group. In the context of crypto, it typically refers to a centralized cryptocurrency exchange or platform where a single entity has control over user funds and transactions, unlike decentralized systems where power is distributed among participants.
Centralized Exchange A Centralized Exchange is a type of digital currency exchange where transactions between buyers and sellers are facilitated by a third-party intermediary. The intermediary in this case is the centralized exchange, which serves as a centralized platform for users to buy, sell, and store different cryptocurrencies.
Centralized Finance (CeFi) Centralized Finance (CeFi) refers to the traditional financial system where a centralized entity, such as a bank or a financial institution, controls and manages all financial activities like lending, trading, and investing. In CeFi, all transactions and decision-making are primarily controlled by a central authority or intermediary, which limits transparency and decentralized decision-making. Examples of CeFi services include bank accounts, credit cards, and stock trading platforms controlled by banks and financial institutions.
Centralized Ledger A centralized ledger refers to a type of database or record-keeping system in which all data is stored, managed, and controlled in a single location by a central authority or organization. This contrasts with decentralized ledgers, such as blockchain, in which data is distributed across a network of nodes without a central authority. In a centralized ledger system, access and control of data is tightly controlled by the central authority, which can have both benefits and drawbacks depending on the specific use case.
Centralized Network A centralized network is a type of computer network architecture where there is a central entity or server that controls the network’s functions and resources. All the users or nodes in the network connect to this central entity in order to communicate with each other or access the network’s services.
Chaffing Chaffing refers to a privacy-enhancing technique in cryptography where a large amount of decoy or irrelevant information is added to hide the actual data being transmitted. This technique helps protect the privacy and confidentiality of sensitive information within a cryptographic system.
Chain Split A Chain Split is a phenomenon that occurs in blockchain technology when there is a permanent divergence between the blockchain network’s two different versions due to a software update or a disagreement among the participants over the network’s rules and protocols. This leads to the creation of two separate blockchains, and any transactions after the split will only be valid on one of the chains. Therefore, it is essential to be aware of any potential chain splits before making any transactions on a blockchain network.
Chaincode A Chaincode is a program that is executed on a blockchain network, specifically in a smart contract environment. It defines the rules and logic for how transactions can be initiated, read, and updated within the network. Chaincode acts as the ‘business logic’ layer of a blockchain system and can be written in various programming languages such as Go, Java, and Node.js. The purpose of Chaincode is to enable decentralized and trustless execution of transactions and contracts on the blockchain network.
Chainlink Chainlink is a decentralized oracle network that connects smart contracts with real-world data and external APIs, enabling secure and reliable information flow between blockchain platforms and off-chain systems. It plays a crucial role in enhancing the functionality and interoperability of blockchain applications.
Chainwashing “Chainwashing” is a term used to describe the practice of misrepresenting or exaggerating the level of decentralization in a cryptocurrency or blockchain project. It is similar to “greenwashing”, which is used to describe companies making misleading claims about their environmental friendliness.
Change Change refers to the difference between the amount sent in a transaction (input) and the amount returned as the balance (output). It is typically represented as a separate output address where the excess funds are sent back to the sender.
Chargeback Chargeback is a process used by credit card companies and banks to reverse a transaction that has been made using a credit card or bank account. It is typically initiated by the customer who believes that the transaction was unauthorized or fraudulent. However, in the world of cryptocurrency, there is no official chargeback process, because cryptocurrency transactions are irreversible. This means that once a cryptocurrency transaction has been made, it cannot be reversed, except in some rare cases where a software bug or other issue causes a transaction to be invalid. Therefore, it’s important to be extremely careful when sending cryptocurrency payments, as there is often no way to get your money back if something goes wrong.
Checksum Checksum refers to a mathematical operation that is performed on a block of data to ensure that it has not been corrupted or modified during transmission or storage. The result obtained from the operation is a fixed-size numerical value that is unique to the data block, and any change in the data will lead to a different checksum value. Checksums are commonly used in computer networks to ensure the integrity of data transmission, and they are also used in software downloads, file transfers, and other applications to ensure data integrity.
Child Chain A child chain is a term from blockchain technology and refers to a secondary blockchain that is connected to a main blockchain, known as a parent chain. The child chain operates independently of the parent chain and has its own set of rules and consensus mechanism. However, it can utilize the security provided by the parent chain through a process called sidechain.
Chiliz Chiliz is a blockchain-based platform that allows sports and entertainment organizations to tokenize their fan engagement. It enables fans to purchase and trade digital assets, known as Fan Tokens, which provide access to exclusive content, voting rights, and other perks within the ecosystem.
Cipher (or Cypher) Cipher (or Cypher) refers to a method or algorithm used for encryption and decryption of messages. It is a technique of converting plaintext or a readable message to a coded or encrypted message to ensure secure transmission of information. There are various types of ciphers such as substitution, transposition, symmetric key ciphers, and asymmetric key ciphers.
Circulating Supply Circulating supply refers to the total number of coins or tokens currently available and in circulation in the market. It is the amount of cryptocurrency that is available for trading in the open market at any given time.
Civic Civic is a blockchain-based identity verification platform that allows users to securely and privately authenticate their identities for various online services and transactions. It provides a decentralized solution for digital identity verification, enhancing privacy and security in the crypto space and beyond.
Client In regards to cryptocurrency, a client is a software application that allows users to interact with and participate in the network of a specific cryptocurrency. It connects to the decentralized network and transfers transactions, creates new cryptocurrency units, and validates the network’s rules. The client typically contains a user interface that displays account information, wallet balances, transaction history, and other relevant information. It’s also responsible for generating and storing the user’s private keys, which are crucial for signing and approving transactions. Different cryptocurrencies have different types of clients, such as desktop clients, web-based clients, and mobile clients.
Cloud Mining Cloud mining is a process of mining cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Litecoin, through remote mining hardware hosted in cloud data centers. Instead of purchasing and maintaining your own hardware, you can rent computing power from a cloud mining provider and use it to mine cryptocurrencies.
Coin A coin in the context of cryptocurrency refers to a type of digital currency that operates on a decentralized blockchain network. These coins are typically designed to be used as a medium of exchange and may be used to purchase goods and services, or as a form of investment. Examples of popular coins include Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), and Litecoin (LTC). Each coin typically has its own unique features, including its own supply, market value, and use cases.
Coinless Protocol A coinless protocol refers to a cryptographic system or network that operates without its native cryptocurrency. Instead of relying on a specific coin for transactions and security, it utilizes alternative mechanisms or tokens to achieve its intended functionalities. This allows for greater flexibility and interoperability within the crypto ecosystem.
Cold Storage Cold storage is a term used to describe a method of securing cryptocurrencies offline to minimize the risk of theft or hacking attacks. The idea is to store private keys, which are used to access the cryptocurrencies, in a device that is not connected to the internet, such as a hardware wallet, paper wallet, or physical device. This way, the private keys are not vulnerable to hacking attempts. When you want to make a transaction, you can transfer the necessary data to an online device, sign the transaction with the private keys, and then transfer the data back to the offline storage device. Cold storage is one of the most secure ways to store cryptocurrencies, but it can also be less convenient than keeping your assets in a hot wallet, which is connected to the internet.
Cold Wallet A cold wallet is a type of digital wallet that stores your private keys offline. Private keys are used to access and manage cryptocurrency holdings, so keeping them offline makes them less susceptible to hacking and theft. Cold wallets can take the form of physical devices, like hardware wallets, or paper wallets, where the private keys are written down and stored securely offline. These wallets are generally considered to be more secure than hot wallets, which are connected to the internet and therefore more vulnerable to cyber attacks.
Collective Investment Scheme A collective investment scheme, also known as a mutual fund or an investment pool, is an investment vehicle where money is pooled together from multiple investors to invest in a portfolio of securities such as stocks, bonds, and other assets.
Colored Coins Coloredcoins refer to a method of representing and managing real-world assets on a blockchain by assigning unique digital tokens to them. These tokens, also known as colored coins, can represent ownership, value, or other attributes of the underlying assets and can be traded securely and transparently on the blockchain.
Commodity A commodity is a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper, gold, wheat, or corn. These goods are usually produced in large quantities and have standard specifications.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent federal agency in the United States that regulates the commodity futures, options, and swaps markets.
Community Governance Community governance refers to the process by which decisions are made and changes are implemented within a crypto project or network by its community members. In the world of cryptocurrency, where decentralization is a key feature, community governance plays a critical role in ensuring that the network operates in the best interests of its users.
Complete Block A Complete Block refers to a block that has been fully mined and contains all the transactions that have been confirmed by the blockchain network. It contains a header, which includes the block’s metadata, and a list of transactions that have been validated by the network’s nodes.
Composability Composability is one of the most interesting features of Decentralized Finance (DeFi). It refers to the possibility to string together various DeFi applications and to thus build new complex products out of existing ones.
Confirmation Confirmation refers to the process of verifying a transaction on the blockchain network. When someone sends cryptocurrency to another person, the transaction is broadcasted across the network and then picked up by miners – individuals or groups who use powerful computers to solve complex mathematical problems thereby verifying the transaction and adding it to the blockchain. As more blocks are added to the blockchain, the transaction is considered to have been confirmed.
Confirmed Transaction A confirmed transaction in the context of cryptocurrency refers to a transaction that has been completely processed and recorded on the blockchain network. When a sender initiates a transaction, it is considered unconfirmed until it has been validated by the network and incorporated into a block of transactions on the blockchain.
Conflict Conflict means a disagreement or inconsistency in the blockchain network where multiple participants have differing versions of the same data, typically arising from conflicting transactions or chain reorganizations. Resolving conflicts is crucial for maintaining consensus and the integrity of the blockchain.
Conflict Resolution Conflict resolution in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the process of resolving disputes that arise in the crypto community or between stakeholders in a particular cryptocurrency project. Such disputes may arise due to disagreements over a cryptocurrency’s technical specifications, governance structures, or other important aspects of the project. To resolve conflicts in the cryptocurrency community, various dispute resolution mechanisms have been developed, such as mediation, arbitration, and community voting. Some of the leading crypto projects have created their own conflict resolution frameworks to ensure that disputes are handled fairly and efficiently.
Consensus Consensus refers to the crucial consensus-building process among participants, i.e. miners, to validate transactions and maintain the trustworthiness of the decentralized network. This consensus is established through innovative mechanisms like Proof of Work (PoW) or Proof of Stake (PoS), ensuring agreement and security within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Consensus Algorithm A consensus algorithm is a mechanism used in cryptocurrencies to achieve agreement and validate transactions across a decentralized network. It ensures that all participants in the network agree on the state of the blockchain and helps maintain the security and integrity of the system without relying on a central authority.
Consortium Blockchain A consortium blockchain is a type of blockchain network that is managed and used by a group of organizations. Unlike public blockchains, which allow anyone to participate in the network, consortium blockchains are permissioned meaning that only approved participants are allowed to join the network. These types of blockchains are typically used by businesses or organizations that need a secure and private way to share data and conduct transactions with each other. The consensus process in a consortium blockchain is also typically faster than in public blockchains, as the number of nodes is smaller and the participants are trusted entities.
Consumer Token A consumer token is a digital or electronic token that represents a unit of value, typically a specific monetary value, which can be used by consumers to make purchases or access services or content within a platform or ecosystem. Consumer tokens are often used in online marketplaces, gaming platforms, and subscription-based services, and can be exchanged, stored, or redeemed for goods or services. They are designed to provide a secure and efficient payment mechanism for digital transactions and offer benefits such as lower transaction fees, faster settlement times, and increased security and privacy.
Convertible Virtual Currency A type of digital currency with a value that can be exchanged for other value-based assets (i.e. fiat currency, goods and services, other CVC), while not holding the status as legal tender
Co-Signer a co-signer is a person or entity that is authorized to sign transactions initiated by a wallet. This is commonly used to add a layer of security to a transaction or wallet, as multiple parties must authorize a transaction before it can be executed. For example, when creating a multisign wallet, several users hold a piece of the private key, and each of them must sign a transaction for it to be valid. This is known as a co-signature.
Cosmos In the realm of crypto, “Cosmos” refers to an interoperable blockchain network that enables different blockchains to communicate and transfer assets seamlessly. It aims to foster a decentralized internet of blockchains, allowing for increased scalability, efficiency, and cross-chain compatibility within the crypto ecosystem.
CPU CPU stands for “Central Processing Unit”. It is the primary component of a computer responsible for executing instructions from software programs. The CPU receives input from various sources such as memory, storage devices, and input/output devices, and processes that data to produce an output. It is often referred to as the brain of the computer, and its speed and performance are critical to the overall performance of the system.
Creator Economy The Creator Economy refers to the new wave of online creators who are able to monetize their content on various platforms such as YouTube, Twitch, Patreon, and Substack, among others.
Cross-Chain Cross-chain refers to the ability to transfer digital assets or data between two separate blockchain networks. It allows users to move value or other information across different blockchain platforms, increasing interoperability and facilitating the exchange of tokens or data from one network to another.
Cross-Chain Atomic Swap A Cross-Chain Atomic Swap is a decentralized way to exchange cryptocurrencies between two different blockchain networks without the need for an intermediary or a centralized cryptocurrency exchange. It involves two parties exchanging their respective cryptocurrencies with each other in a trustless manner, where the transaction is only executed if all the conditions of the agreement are met. This is accomplished through the use of smart contracts that enforce the terms of the exchange and ensure that each party receives their assets.
Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is a process of getting work or funding, usually online, from a crowd of people. The idea is to tap into the collective intelligence and skills of the crowd to complete a task or solve a problem.
Cryptanalysis Cryptanalysis refers to the study and practice of analyzing cryptographic systems in order to uncover weaknesses or vulnerabilities that can be exploited to break or circumvent the security of the system. It plays a crucial role in assessing the strength of cryptographic algorithms and ensuring the integrity of crypto protocols and systems.
Crypto Crypto is short for cryptocurrency, which is a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography (a technique for secure communication) to verify transactions and control the creation of new units. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized, meaning they are not issued or controlled by any central authority like a bank or government. Instead, they use blockchain technology to store and verify transactions, which makes them secure and transparent. The most well-known example of a cryptocurrency is Bitcoin, although there are many other cryptocurrencies out there as well such as Ethereum, Litecoin, and Ripple. Cryptocurrencies can be bought and sold on cryptocurrency exchanges, and can also be used as a form of payment for goods and services.
Crypto Bro In the crypto space, a Crypto Bro typically refers to an individual, often male, who is enthusiastic about cryptocurrencies and actively participates in the crypto community. They are often characterized by their strong belief in the potential of cryptocurrencies and their involvement in trading or investing activities.
Crypto Climate Accord (CCA) The Crypto Climate Accord (CCA) is a private sector-led initiative aimed at making the cryptocurrency industry 100% renewable by 2030. It is modeled after the Paris Climate Agreement and seeks to bring together the cryptocurrency industry and the renewable energy sector to achieve this goal.
Crypto Derivatives Crypto Derivatives are financial instruments that derive their value from underlying cryptocurrencies. They allow investors to speculate on the price movements of cryptocurrencies without owning the actual assets. Crypto derivatives include futures contracts, options, and swaps, providing traders with additional trading and risk management opportunities in the crypto market.
Crypto Mining Crypto mining refers to the process of verifying and adding transactions to a blockchain by solving complex mathematical problems. Miners use powerful computers to compete against each other, and the first miner to solve the problem is rewarded with new cryptocurrency coins. This process helps secure the network, validate transactions, and create new digital assets.
Crypto Valley Crypto Valley is a term used to refer to a region in Switzerland that has become a hub for blockchain and cryptocurrency-related companies. The area, centered on the city of Zug, has attracted a number of startups, as well as established players in the fintech industry, due to its relatively friendly regulatory environment, access to capital, and skilled workforce. The name “Crypto Valley” was coined in reference to Silicon Valley, due to the concentration of technology firms in the region.
Crypto Wallet A crypto wallet is a digital tool that allows users to securely store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies. It stores the user’s private keys, which are needed to access and manage their digital assets. Crypto wallets come in various forms, such as software applications, hardware devices, or even paper-based solutions, providing users with control over their cryptocurrency holdings. is a cryptocurrency platform that offers a range of crypto-related services, including buying, selling, and storing digital assets, as well as cryptocurrency payment solutions and a native cryptocurrency token called CRO. It aims to make crypto accessible to everyone through its user-friendly interface and comprehensive suite of features.
Cryptoart Cryptoart refers to digital artwork that is created and distributed using blockchain technology. It allows artists to tokenize their work, establish provenance, and enable secure ownership and trading of digital art using cryptocurrencies.
Cryptoasset Trading Platform (CTP) A Cryptoasset Trading Platform (CTP) is an online marketplace that enables users to buy, sell and trade cryptocurrency assets such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin.
Cryptocurrency Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography (a technique for secure communication) to verify transactions and control the creation of new units. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized, meaning they are not issued or controlled by any central authority like a bank or government. Instead, they use blockchain technology to store and verify transactions, which makes them secure and transparent. The most well-known example of a cryptocurrency is Bitcoin, although there are many other cryptocurrencies out there as well such as Ethereum, Litecoin, and Ripple. Cryptocurrencies can be bought and sold on cryptocurrency exchanges, and can also be used as a form of payment for goods and services.
Cryptoeconomics Cryptoeconomics is the study of how economic principles and incentives are applied within decentralized networks and blockchain systems. It explores the design and incentives behind cryptocurrencies and their underlying protocols, aiming to create secure and self-sustaining digital ecosystems.
Cryptographic Cryptographic refers to the use of mathematical algorithms and techniques to secure and protect sensitive information in a manner that is resistant to unauthorized access or modification. In the context of cryptocurrencies, cryptographic techniques are employed to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of transactions and digital assets.
Cryptographic Digest A Cryptographic Digest, also known as a hash function or simply a hash, is a mathematical algorithm that takes in input data of any size and produces a fixed-size output value. The output value is typically represented as a string of characters or numbers. The primary purpose of a cryptographic digest is to verify the integrity of data. This is accomplished by comparing the hash value of the original data with the hash value of the data that has been transmitted or received. If the two hash values match, it can be reasonably assumed that the data has not been tampered with in transit or storage. Cryptographic digests are also used for security purposes, such as generating unique digital signatures to ensure that messages or data have not been modified on an unauthorized basis. They can also be used to store passwords securely by transforming the user’s password into a hash value, which is then stored in a database.
Cryptographic Hash Function A mathematical algorithm that converts inputted data into an ecrypted output of a fixed size which is called the ‘hash’
Crypto Kitty Crypto Kitty refers to a popular internet meme that emerged during the cryptocurrency boom of 2017/2018. It humorously represents the enthusiasm and craze surrounding the buying, selling, and breeding of digital cats on the Ethereum blockchain-based game called CryptoKitties. The meme became synonymous with the concept of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and their potential for unique digital asset ownership.
Cryptographic Nonce A unique random number that is used to communicate encrypted information by preventing replay attacks
Cryptography Cryptography is the practice of securing communication from third-party intervention by using codes and ciphers. It involves techniques for encryption and decryption of messages to ensure that only authorized parties can access the information being communicated. Cryptography is used in various domains, including secure communication, e-commerce, and data protection.
Cryptojacking Cryptojacking refers to the unauthorized use of someone else’s computer or device, usually through a website, to mine cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Monero, or Ethereum among others.
Cryptology Cryptology refers to the study and practice of cryptographic techniques, including encryption, decryption, and secure communication. It encompasses the fields of cryptography and cryptanalysis, and plays a crucial role in the development and security of cryptocurrencies and other digital assets.
Cryptonetwork A cryptonetwork is a decentralized network built using cryptography and blockchain technology. It enables secure peer-to-peer transactions and communications without the need for a central authority.
Cryptonex Cryptonex is a decentralized digital currency and blockchain platform that enables secure and efficient peer-to-peer transactions, making it easier to buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies in a user-friendly manner. It provides a seamless way for individuals and businesses to participate in the crypto economy.
CryptoPunks The CryptoPunks are are a collection of 10,000 unique, pixel art-style characters in the form of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT) on the Ethereum blockchain. The most expensive CryptoPunk sold for USD 2 million.
Cryptosis Cryptosis is used as a playful term to describe individuals who are deeply passionate and immersed in the world of cryptocurrencies. These individuals enthusiastically seek knowledge, engage in continuous learning, and eagerly share their insights and discussions about crypto with others.
Crypto-Native Assets Crypto-Native Assets refers to digital assets that are native to a particular blockchain or cryptocurrency ecosystem. These assets are designed and built to leverage the unique features and functionalities of the underlying blockchain technology, offering new forms of value transfer, ownership, and utility within the crypto space.
Crypto-to-Crypto Exchange A crypto-to-crypto exchange is a digital marketplace that allows users to trade one cryptocurrency for another, instead of buying or selling cryptocurrencies with fiat currency (like US dollars or Euros).
Currency Currency refers to a digital form of money that can be used for transactions, store of value, and unit of account. Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum serve as decentralized digital currencies that operate independently of traditional financial systems, offering secure and borderless transactions.
Custodian A Custodian is an entity or service provider that holds and safeguards digital assets on behalf of individuals or organizations. They play a crucial role in securely storing and managing cryptocurrencies, providing added protection against theft or loss.
Custody Custody refers to the safekeeping and management of digital assets by a trusted third-party service, such as a custodian or wallet provider, to ensure their security and protection against unauthorized access or loss.
Cybersecurity Cybersecurity refers to the practice of protecting computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, attacks, and damage. In the context of crypto, cybersecurity measures are essential to safeguard digital assets, prevent hacking attempts, and ensure the integrity and confidentiality of cryptocurrency transactions and information.
Cypherpunk Cypherpunk refers to a movement started in the 1980s that advocates for stronger internet privacy through the use of cryptography. The goal of the movement is to use technology, particularly cryptography, to protect the privacy and security of communication on the internet. The ideas of cypherpunks have influenced the development of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, and various other technologies that prioritize privacy and security.


DAC-8 Directive on Administrative Cooperation (DAC 8) is a regulatory framework established by the European Union (EU) to enhance the exchange of information among member states regarding financial accounts, including those related to cryptocurrencies. It aims to combat tax evasion and improve transparency in the crypto sector through cooperation and information sharing between tax authorities.
DAO An abbreviation for the term “Decentralized Autnonmous Organization”
DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization) “Decentralized Autonomous Organizations” are not legally defined and are not established as formal corporations in most cases. Essentially, the term refers to a structure in which the participants jointly decide on managerial decisions.
DApp An abbreviation for the term “Decentralized Application”. See “Decentralized Application”.
Dash Dash is a decentralized digital currency that enables fast, private, and secure transactions. It utilizes a unique network structure and advanced cryptography to provide users with enhanced privacy features and efficient payment solutions within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Data Silo A data silo is a term used in computer science to describe a situation where data is stored in an isolated manner, such that it cannot be easily accessed or shared with other parts of an organization’s information system. This means that the data is not integrated and shared across the organization, which can lead to inefficiencies, duplication of effort, and reduced visibility. Data silos can occur due to issues with technology, organizational structure, or data management practices.
Database A database is an organized collection of data or information that is stored in a computer or server.
Date of Launch The “Date of Launch” refers to the specific day or moment when a cryptocurrency project or token is officially introduced to the public or made available for trading and use. It marks the starting point of its availability and often signifies the beginning of its market journey.
DDOS DDOS stands for “Distributed Denial of Service” and refers to a malicious cyberattack where multiple compromised devices are used to flood a target system or network with excessive traffic, causing a denial of service for legitimate users.
Dead Cat Bounce  “Dead cat bounce” is a financial term that refers to a temporary recovery of asset prices after a significant decline. This term is used to describe situations where investors believe that the market has hit bottom and subsequently start buying securities, causing the prices to recover slightly. However, this recovery is brief as the overall trend usually continues downward, just like a cat falling from a great height that may bounce once before hitting the ground.
Dead Coin A dead coin refers to a cryptocurrency project that is no longer active or has become obsolete. It typically implies that the project has lost its value, community support, or development activity, rendering it inactive in the crypto market.
Decentraland “Dezentraland” is a virtual world based on blockchain technology, which classifies as “Metaverse”. Users are enabled to perform different operations (such as buying and designing virtual real estate) and to transact with each other.
Decentralization Decentralization refers to the distribution of power, control, and decision-making authority across a network or system, rather than being concentrated in a central authority. In the context of crypto, decentralization is a fundamental principle that aims to eliminate the need for intermediaries and create a transparent and autonomous financial system that is governed by consensus among participants.
Decentralized Decentralized refers to a system or network that operates without a central authority or control. In the context of crypto, it means that no single entity has full control over the network, and decision-making is distributed among participants, promoting transparency, security, and censorship resistance.
Decentralized Application A decentralized application, short Dapp, is a software application that runs on a blockchain network, utilizing smart contracts to enable peer-to-peer interactions and operate in a decentralized manner, without the need for intermediaries or central authorities.
Decentralized Autonomous Cooperative An organization governed by its users, employing autonomous governance mechanisms to address matters of corporate responsibility. DACs operate in a decentralized manner, allowing users to collectively control the organization and make decisions based on predefined rules.
Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) A type of organization that operates autonomously based on predetermined rules and smart contracts, utilizing blockchain technology to enable transparent and decentralized decision-making and governance without the need for a central authority. DAOs can take on different forms and may possess distinct legal recognition (and personality) in certain jurisdictions, such as Wyoming or, beginning January 2024, Utah.
Decentralized Exchange (DEX) A trading platform allowing direct peer-to-peer cryptocurrency trading without intermediaries or a central authority, using blockchain technology and smart contracts for security and control over assets.
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) Decentralized Finance (DeFi) refers to a financial system built on blockchain technology that aims to provide open and permissionless access to traditional financial services, such as lending, borrowing, and trading, without the need for intermediaries like banks. It leverages smart contracts and decentralized protocols to enable trustless and transparent financial transactions.
Decentralized Network A network characterized by its openness, allowing any party to participate and contribute information to a blockchain, enabling peer-to-peer communication and data sharing without the need for intermediaries
Decoupling Decoupling refers to the phenomenon where the price movements of different assets or markets become less correlated or independent of each other. In the context of crypto, decoupling can refer to the separation of cryptocurrency prices from traditional financial markets, indicating a shift in market dynamics and increased recognition of crypto as a distinct asset class.
Decred Decred is a decentralized cryptocurrency that aims to promote community governance and decision-making in the development and management of its network. It utilizes a hybrid consensus mechanism combining both proof-of-work and proof-of-stake, allowing participants to have a say in the project’s direction and decision-making process.
Decryption Decryption it is the process of decoding encrypted messages or data stored on a blockchain to access the underlying information or transactions.
DeFi (Decentralized Finance) See “Decentralized Finance” above.
DeFi Degen A DeFi degen refers to an individual who actively engages in decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols, often taking high risks and pursuing speculative investments for potential high returns. They embrace the volatile nature of DeFi and are willing to explore new and experimental projects within the decentralized ecosystem.
Deflation Defliation is an economic situation characterized by a sustained decrease in general prive level of goods and services, which leads to an increase in the purchasing power of money.
Degen (degenerate) In the cryptocurrency community, the term “degen” or “degenerate” usually refers to someone who takes high-risk and speculative investments with their money, often disregarding practical considerations like fundamentals or market analysis.
Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) is a consensus algorithm used in blockchain technology to achieve distributed consensus. In DPOS, a set of nodes, known as “delegates,” are chosen by the network to validate transactions and create new blocks. These delegates are voted into their positions by token holders, and they are responsible for maintaining the integrity of the network.
Delisting Delisting refers to the removal of a cryptocurrency from an exchange or platform, making it no longer available for trading. This can happen for various reasons, such as low trading volume, regulatory concerns, or the project no longer meeting the exchange’s listing requirements.
Demurrage Demurrage refers to a fee or penalty charged on stored value or currency over time. It can be a mechanism used to incentivize spending or discourage hoarding by gradually reducing the value of holdings over time.
Dent Dent is a cryptocurrency and platform that aims to disrupt the global mobile data market by enabling users to buy, sell, and share mobile data with ease. It utilizes blockchain technology to create a decentralized marketplace for data, allowing users to bypass traditional mobile operators and have greater control over their data usage.
Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC) Regarding the question you asked, The Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC) is a financial services company that provides securities settlement, central clearing, and information services for financial transactions.
Depth Chart A Depth Chart is a visual representation of buy and sell orders at various price levels for a particular cryptocurrency. It displays the order book’s depth and helps traders analyze market liquidity and potential price movements.
Derivative In finance, a derivative is a financial contract that derives its value from an underlying asset or group of assets. It is a security whose price is dependent upon or derived from one or more underlying assets. The underlying assets can be stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, interest rates, or market indices. The most common types of derivatives are futures, options, and swaps. Derivatives can be used for hedging, trading, or speculation. They are complex financial instruments and can carry a high level of risk.
Deterministic Wallet A deterministic wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that operates using a predetermined algorithm to generate a sequence of crypto addresses and private keys. This process allows for the creation of an unlimited number of addresses that can be used to send and receive cryptocurrencies, while ensuring that all associated private keys are easily recoverable if necessary. Essentially, deterministic wallets offer a way to manage cryptocurrency funds more securely and efficiently by simplifying the process of generating and managing multiple addresses.
Devs Devs is a shorthand term commonly used in the crypto community to refer to developers. These are individuals or teams responsible for designing, building, and maintaining cryptocurrencies, blockchain platforms, and decentralized applications (dApps) within the crypto ecosystem.
DEX An abbreviation for the term “Decentralized Exchange”.
diamond hands The term diamond hands refers to investors withn strong convictions, who are not upset even by enormous price setbacks.
Difficulty Difficulty in crypto refers to the level of complexity in solving a mathematical puzzle required to mine or validate new blocks in a blockchain network. It is adjusted regularly to ensure a consistent block creation time and maintain network stability. Higher difficulty means more computational power is needed to solve the puzzle and mine new blocks.
DigiByte DigiByte is a decentralized blockchain platform that focuses on security, speed, and decentralization. It provides a secure and efficient way to transmit and store digital assets, making it a popular choice for various applications in the crypto space.
Digital In the context of crypto, “digital” refers to the representation of assets, currencies, or information in a format that can be stored, transmitted, and manipulated electronically. It relates to cryptocurrencies as they exist in digital form, enabling secure and decentralized transactions and storage on blockchain networks.
Digital Asset Digital assets are assets taking a digital form also utilizing some form of novel distributed ledger technology (e.g.: cryptocurrencies, convertible virtual currencies or non-fungible tokens)
Digital Commodity A digital good bearing objective value, exchangeable for cash or cryptocurrencies.
Digital Currency Any currency, money, or monetary asset managed, stored or exchanged on digital systems. Types of digital currencies include cryptocurrency, virtual currency and central bank digital currency.
Digital Gold Digital Gold refers to cryptocurrencies, particularly Bitcoin, that are often compared to gold due to their limited supply, scarcity, and store of value properties. Like physical gold, digital gold serves as a decentralized and secure form of investment or wealth preservation in the crypto space.
Digital Identity A digital profile, which contain all digital information from individuals, these are collected based on their activity in the virtual world. Storing data on Blockchain makes it more secure and efficient.
Digital Signature An electronic signature is data in electronic form which is attached to or logically associated with other data in electronic form used by the relevant signatory to attach their signature and verify various parameters of the documents (e.g. identity of the signatory, originality and details on any post-signing tampering of the documents).
Digital Silver Digital Silver is a popular name used to refer to Ether (ETH), the native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum blockchain. It signifies that Ether is often seen as a digital asset with qualities similar to silver, such as being a store of value and a medium of exchange within the crypto ecosystem.
Digital Twin The real-time virtual representation of a physical object, service or system.
Digital Wallet A digital wallet is a secure software application that allows users to store, manage, and transact with their digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies. It provides a convenient and accessible way to store and access one’s crypto holdings, similar to a physical wallet for traditional currency.
DigixDAO DigixDAO is a decentralized autonomous organization that aims to tokenize physical assets, particularly gold, on the Ethereum blockchain. It provides a transparent and secure way for users to own and trade digital representations of gold, known as Digix tokens (DGX), with each token representing a specific quantity of gold.
Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) This directed graph can be used to make transactions faster and more efficient. Depicts a series of activities, which is visually presented as a set of circles, each one representing an activity and the flow from one activity to another
Discord Discord is an American VoIP and instant messaging social platform, with its users having the ability to communicate via voice calls, video calls, text messaging, media and files in private chats or as part of communities called “servers”. Discord is a preferred platform of crypto, NFT and DeFi communities.
Discount Token Digital assets providing their holders with limited rights and benefits of discounts in case of certain purchases.
Distributed In the context of cryptocurrency, “distributed” refers to the decentralized nature of the blockchain network, where the data and transaction records are stored and verified across multiple nodes or computers. This distributed architecture enhances security, transparency, and resilience in the crypto ecosystem.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) Attack An attack against an IT system that partially or completely cripples and freezes its operation by overwhelming the respective by way of massive data traffic. Such attacks render services provided by the target inaccessible.
Distributed Ledger A database shares and synchronized across multiple nodes accessible by multiple people, ensuring that transactions concluded on such systems to be certified and recorded. Recordings can be accessed by all participating nodes and all participants have the complete database of recorded transactions available on its local system. The locally available databases are updated each time changes occur to the publicly available recorded database.
Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) The technological infrastructure and protocols allowing parallel access, validation and updating of records across a networked database comprised of multiple interconnected nodes having the same database available locally and validating each transaction in such databases. One the most commonly used form of the technology is Blockchain.
Distributed Network Distributed networks are computer networks spread and distributed over various other networks. Such distribution of networks allow for complex systems to communicate in one combined network or even share processing capabilities
Distribution Distribution refers to the process of allocating or dispersing tokens or coins to various individuals or entities. It involves ensuring a fair and decentralized distribution of the cryptocurrency to promote wider ownership and participation within the network.
Do Your Own Research (DYOR) Do Your Own Research (DYOR) refers to the necessity to inform oneself accurately instead of blindly following the opinions of others, in particular on social media, where influencers shill their favorite crypto investment. 
Dogecoin Dogecoin is a cryptocurrency that started as a meme and has gained popularity for its friendly and fun-loving community. It was created as a digital currency for tipping and charitable purposes, with a Shiba Inu dog as its mascot.
Dolphin A Bitcoin holder who has between 100 and 500 Bitcoin.
Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA) Dollar Cost Averaging is an investment strategy where an individual regularly invests a fixed amount of money into a cryptocurrency at predetermined intervals, regardless of the cryptocurrency’s price. This approach aims to reduce the impact of market volatility and allows for long-term accumulation of crypto assets.
Dominance Dominance refers to the market share or proportion of total market capitalization that a specific cryptocurrency holds in relation to the entire crypto market. It is often used to gauge the influence and prominence of a particular cryptocurrency within the broader industry.
Double Spend (Attack) A Double Spend Attack may appear in various different forms but aims to use the Double Spend Problems of a decentralised system to duplicate tokens. Examples of such attacks are: Finney Attack; Race Attack and 51% Attack.
Double Spend (Problem) A Double Spend Problem refers to the diffciulty in ensuring that digital money is not spent twice. Conventional payment systems avoid this issue by verifying each transaction centrally. Within decentralised systems this issue is mitigated through storing multiple up-to-date copies of the transaction ledger in different serves. However, an issue arises when transaction information arrives at slightly different times at different servers, creating two servers which disagree on the loedger.
Double Spending Double Spending” refers to the risk that the same crypto payment token may be spend twice. In order for this risk to materialise, an altered block must be inserted in the blockchain – most protocols have mechanisms to mitigate the Double Spending risk.
Dox/Doxxing Doxxing refers to the act of revealing or publishing someone’s private or personal information, such as their real name, address, or contact details, without their consent. It is a form of online harassment or invasion of privacy that can occur in the crypto community and other online spaces.
Dragonchain Dragonchain is a blockchain platform that provides businesses with secure and scalable solutions for building and deploying decentralized applications (dApps) and smart contracts. It enables organizations to leverage blockchain technology to enhance transparency, data integrity, and operational efficiency in various industries.
Drop A Drop refers to the distribution or release of digital assets or tokens to individuals, typically through airdrops or token giveaways. It allows users to receive free or discounted tokens as part of a promotional or community-building initiative.
Dump A Dump is a significant and rapid sell-off of a particular cryptocurrency, resulting in a sharp decline in its price. It is often associated with market manipulation or a sudden loss of investor confidence, leading to a decrease in value.
Dumping Dumping refers to the act of intentionally selling a large amount of a cryptocurrency in a short period, causing its price to decline significantly. It is typically associated with market manipulation or profit-taking by investors.
Dust Transaction A Dust Transaction is a transaction that involves a very small amount of cryptocurrency, often below the network’s minimum limit, making it economically impractical due to transaction fees. These transactions can sometimes be used to spam or clog the blockchain network.
DYOR (do your own research) See “Do your own research”


Ecosystem Ecosystem refers to the interconnected network of platforms, projects, communities, and individuals that support and interact with a specific cryptocurrency or blockchain technology. It encompasses all the stakeholders, services, and infrastructure that contribute to the growth and functionality of the crypto space.
E-Currency An E-Currency is a digital form of currency that is primarily used for online transactions and can be stored, exchanged, and transferred electronically. It is often associated with cryptocurrencies, which are decentralized digital currencies that utilize cryptographic technology for secure and verifiable transactions.
EIP “EIP” stands for Ethereum Improvement Proposal, which is a formal document outlining proposed changes, improvements, or additions to the Ethereum network’s protocol or ecosystem. It serves as a means for the community to discuss and decide upon potential upgrades to the Ethereum blockchain.
Electroneum Electroneum is a cryptocurrency that aims to enable mobile-based payments and remittances, making it accessible to a wider user base. It focuses on providing a user-friendly experience and fostering financial inclusion by allowing individuals to engage with digital currencies through their smartphones.
ELI5 (explain it like I’m five) A phrase used when pleading for a more simplistic description or approach to a difficult and complex concept, similar to how it would be explained for the understanding of a five year old
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is a cryptographic algorithm used in digital signatures. It provides a secure method for verifying the authenticity and integrity of digital data, commonly used in blockchain and cryptocurrency transactions.
Emission Emission refers to the process of creating and issuing new units of a cryptocurrency into circulation. It is often associated with the mining or staking of cryptocurrencies, where new coins are generated as a reward for participating in the network’s consensus mechanism.
Encryption Encryption is the process of converting plain text or data into a secret code using cryptographic algorithms. It is commonly used in cryptography to protect sensitive information and secure communications in cryptocurrencies and other digital systems.
End User License Agreement (EULA) An End User License Agreement, or EULA for short, is a legal contract between software providers and users. It outlines the terms and conditions by which the user is allowed to install, use or access the software. EULAs are commonly used for software applications, computer games, and online services.
Enjin Enjin is a blockchain platform and ecosystem that enables the creation, management, and trade of virtual goods. It allows developers to integrate blockchain technology into their games and applications, empowering users with true ownership and the ability to trade in-game items securely.
Enjin Coin Enjin Coin is a cryptocurrency that operates on the Ethereum blockchain and is used as a digital currency within the Enjin ecosystem. It allows users to buy, sell, and trade virtual goods and assets across various gaming platforms, providing a secure and decentralized solution for in-game transactions.
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) The Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) is a non-profit organization that was established in 2017 to bring together corporations, start-ups, and research institutions to collaborate on developing and promoting the use of Ethereum blockchain technology in enterprise environments.
Entry and Exit Points Entry and exit points refer to the specific price levels or market conditions at which an investor enters or exits a cryptocurrency trade. These points are determined based on various technical or fundamental indicators to maximize potential profits and manage risks in crypto trading.
Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) are factors used to evaluate the sustainability and ethical impact of an investment in a company or business.
EOS EOS is a blockchain platform that aims to provide decentralized applications (dApps) with scalability, speed, and flexibility. It allows developers to build and deploy smart contracts and enables users to participate in the EOS ecosystem by utilizing the platform’s native cryptocurrency.
E-Precious Metal E-Precious Metal is a blockchain-based platform that enables customers to invest in physical precious metals without actually owning them by digitizing them.
ERC “ERC” stands for “Ethereum Request for Comments”. It is a technical standard used for proposing improvements, standards, and protocols within the Ethereum blockchain ecosystem. ERCs serve as a means for developers and the community to discuss and agree upon changes, including the development of new tokens, smart contracts, and functionalities on the Ethereum platform. The numbering of ERCs helps to identify and distinguish between different proposals and specifications within the Ethereum community.
ERC-1155 “ERC-1155” is a token standard on the Ethereum blockchain that allows for the creation of both fungible and non-fungible tokens within a single smart contract. It provides a more efficient and flexible way to manage multiple types of assets and enables developers to create complex token ecosystems.
ERC-20 Is a standard for Ethereum tokens that establishes a set of rules governing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It serves as a blueprint for creating tokens, ensuring consistency and compatibility across different tokens. The majority of Ethereum tokens adhere to the ERC-20 standard, simplifying the token creation process for developers and facilitating seamless integration into various applications and platforms.
ERC-721 “ERC-721” is a token standard on the Ethereum blockchain used for creating non-fungible tokens (NFTs). It enables the unique identification and ownership of digital assets, such as artwork, collectibles, and virtual real estate, allowing them to be bought, sold, and traded on the blockchain.
Escrow Escrow is a financial arrangement in which a third party holds and regulates payment of the funds required for two parties involved in a given transaction. It helps to ensure that both buyer and seller fulfill their obligations in the transaction. The funds are generally held by the escrow service until it receives the appropriate written or oral instructions or until obligations are fulfilled.
ETH Short for “Ether” or “Ethereum”.
Ether Ether (ETH) is the native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum blockchain. It is a digital asset used to facilitate transactions, execute smart contracts, and incentivize participants in the Ethereum network. Ether is also commonly referred to as the “fuel” that powers decentralized applications (dApps) and enables users to interact with the Ethereum platform.
Ethereum Ethereum is a decentralized blockchain platform and cryptocurrency that enables the creation and execution of smart contracts. It serves as the native currency of the Ethereum network and is used for various purposes, including transactions and accessing decentralized applications (dApps).
Ethereum 2.0 The Ethereum after it was switched from the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism to the proof-of-stake (PoS) concensus mechanism on 15 September 2022
Ethereum Classic Ethereum Classic refers to the blockchain and cryptocurrency that emerged as a result of a contentious hard fork from the original Ethereum network. It maintains the principles of immutability and decentralization, serving as an alternative version of Ethereum for those who support a non-altered blockchain history.
Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) An Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) is a document that outlines a proposal to improve the Ethereum network in some way. These proposals are submitted by developers and community members with the goal of enhancing the functionality, security, or usability of the Ethereum blockchain.
Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) Token Standard The Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) Token Standard is a widely adopted technical standard used for creating and implementing new digital assets, or tokens, on the Ethereum blockchain. ERC tokens follow a set of predefined rules and requirements, which ensure that they function consistently on the Ethereum network and can be easily integrated with other applications, such as wallets and exchanges. Some examples of ERC tokens include popular cryptocurrencies like Ether (ETH) and Tether (USDT), as well as a wide range of other digital assets used for everything from decentralized finance (DeFi) to gaming.
Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a virtual machine that runs on the Ethereum network. It is a runtime environment for smart contracts, which are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement between buyer and seller being directly written into lines of code. The EVM executes the bytecode of smart contracts and provides a sandboxed environment for running the code in a manner that is secure and deterministic. It is responsible for managing the state of the Ethereum network, including account balances, contract storage, and execution of smart contracts.
Etherscan Etherscan is a widely-used blockchain explorer specifically designed for the Ethereum blockchain. It allows users to search and explore Ethereum transactions, addresses, and smart contracts, providing transparency and visibility into the Ethereum network.
Ethos Ethos, in the context of crypto, refers to the guiding principles and values of a particular cryptocurrency project or community. It represents the shared beliefs and goals that drive the development and adoption of the cryptocurrency, shaping its culture and vision.
Exchange An exchange is a platform or marketplace where individuals can buy, sell, and trade different cryptocurrencies. It acts as an intermediary that facilitates the exchange of one cryptocurrency for another or for traditional fiat currencies, providing liquidity and enabling users to participate in the crypto market.
Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) A type of investment fund whose shares are traded on a stock exchange and who offers investors the possibility to invest in a bundle of varied securities in order to diversify their portfolio
Exchanger An exchanger, also known as a cryptocurrency exchange, is a platform that allows users to buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies. It acts as a marketplace where individuals can exchange one cryptocurrency for another or convert cryptocurrencies into traditional fiat currencies. Exchangers play a crucial role in facilitating the liquidity and accessibility of cryptocurrencies for users.
Exit Scam An Exit Scam is a fraudulent scheme where the initiator of a project or company disappears after collecting funds or assets from investors or customers.


Factom Factom is a blockchain-based platform that provides a secure and immutable record-keeping system for businesses and institutions. It enables the creation of tamper-proof and verifiable data records, allowing for transparent and auditable transactions and information management.
Farm Farm refers to the act of providing liquidity to decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols in exchange for earning rewards. Users can deposit their cryptocurrencies into these farming protocols and receive additional tokens or fees as incentives for their participation, creating an opportunity to earn passive income in the crypto market.
Fat Protocol Fat Protocol is a term used to describe a network protocol that has built-in value from the very beginning. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, it refers to a protocol that is not only used for transmitting information, but it also includes a built-in asset or token that has value. For example, Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other blockchain protocols are referred to as fat protocols because they include native tokens (i.e., BTC, ETH) that hold value and can be traded. This is different from traditional internet protocols like HTTP or SMTP, which do not have built-in value.
Faucet A faucet refers to a website or application that gives away small amounts of cryptocurrencies for free. It is often used as a promotional tool to introduce new users to a specific cryptocurrency or to incentivize certain actions within a crypto ecosystem, such as completing tasks or participating in community activities.
Fault Tolerance Fault tolerance refers to the system’s ability to continue functioning and maintaining data integrity even in the presence of faults or failures, such as network disruptions, hardware failures, or malicious attacks. It ensures that the crypto network remains operational and secure, providing resilience against potential disruptions or vulnerabilities.
Fear and Greed Index The Fear and Greed Index is a sentiment indicator used in the crypto market to gauge the overall emotions and behavior of investors. It measures the level of fear or greed prevailing in the market, helping traders and investors make decisions based on market sentiment.
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) is a term used in the crypto community to describe the spread of negative information or rumors aimed at creating panic and uncertainty among investors. It can impact market sentiment and lead to irrational decision-making based on fear rather than factual analysis.
Federated Blockchain A Federated Blockchain is a type of blockchain network that allows multiple organizations or entities to have control over the validation and verification process of transactions on the network. Unlike a public blockchain where anyone can participate in the validation process, in a federated blockchain, only pre-selected nodes or validators are allowed to validate the transactions. This type of blockchain network is typically used in private or consortium blockchains where the participating organizations have a level of trust and want to maintain a certain level of control over the network.
Fiat The term ‘Fiat’ is derived from latin, meaning ‘let it be done’. It is used to denote that some sort of authority decrees/guarantees the value of something, rather than the fiat object being backed by a commodity of some sorts.
Fiat currency Fiat Currencies” are national currencies issued by governments, which are not backed by a commodity (such as gold). The Euro, US Dollar and British Pound all classify as Fiat Currencies.
Fiat Exchange A fiat exchange is a cryptocurrency exchange where users can buy or sell cryptocurrencies using government-issued fiat currencies, such as U.S. dollars, euros, or Japanese yen, rather than other cryptocurrencies.
Fiat Gateways Fiat gateways are platforms or services that allow users to convert traditional fiat currencies (such as USD, EUR, etc.) into cryptocurrencies and vice versa. They provide a bridge between the traditional financial system and the crypto market, enabling users to deposit or withdraw funds in their preferred fiat currency.
Finality Finality in the context of crypto refers to the irreversible confirmation of a transaction or the state of a blockchain. Once a transaction or block is deemed final, it cannot be undone or modified, ensuring the integrity and immutability of the blockchain.
Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) FinCEN stands for the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. It is a bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury that is responsible for preventing and detecting financial crimes, such as money laundering and terrorist financing. FinCEN collects, analyzes, and disseminates financial intelligence to law enforcement agencies, financial institutions, and regulators to combat these types of illegal activities.
FinCEN see “Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)”
Finney A Finney refers to a unit of measurement for small amounts of Bitcoin. It represents 0.00000010 BTC (1^(-10) BTC), named after Hal Finney, an early cryptocurrency pioneer.
Finney Attack A Finney attack is a type of attack in cryptocurrency mining where a miner, who has a significant amount of computing power, creates a fraudulent transaction. The miner then creates a block that does not include the fraudulent transaction. Once the block is accepted by the network, the miner uses the computing power to create a competing block that includes the fraudulent transaction. The miner then broadcasts the competing block to the network, which causes the network to accept it instead of the original block. This allows the miner to receive the block reward and keep the fraudulent transaction.
Fish A Bitcoin holder who has between 10 to 50 Bitcoin.
Flashloan A flash loan is a type of decentralized lending mechanism that allows users to borrow funds from a liquidity pool for a very short duration, often within a single transaction. It enables traders to access a large amount of capital instantly, but requires the loan to be repaid within the same transaction to prevent defaults.
Flippening Flippening refers to the hypothetical event in the cryptocurrency market where one cryptocurrency surpasses another in terms of market capitalization or dominance, indicating a shift in the hierarchy of cryptocurrencies.
Floor is Lava In crypto, the phrase ‘Floor is Lava’ refers to a situation where the price of a particular cryptocurrency or token rapidly increases, making it difficult for investors to enter the market at a lower price. It implies that the price is rising quickly and there is a fear of missing out on potential gains.
Floor Price Floor Price refers to the minimum price at which a cryptocurrency or digital asset is traded or sold in a specific market or platform. It acts as a support level, indicating the lowest price that buyers are willing to pay, and can be influenced by factors such as market demand, supply, and investor sentiment.
FOMO (fear of missing out) FOMO refers to the fear of investors of missing out on a good investment, which in turn may lead to irrational decisions.
Forge/Forging Forge/Forging in the context of crypto refers to the process of validating and adding new blocks to a blockchain network, typically done by designated network participants who hold a certain amount of cryptocurrency. It is a consensus mechanism used to secure and maintain the integrity of the blockchain network.
Fork Fork in the context of crypto refers to the splitting of a blockchain into two separate paths, resulting in the creation of a new cryptocurrency with a different set of rules and features. It occurs when there is a fundamental disagreement within the community or when an update to the protocol is implemented.
Formal Verification Formal Verification is a method used in crypto to mathematically prove the correctness and security of a software system or smart contract. It involves rigorous analysis and verification of code to ensure it behaves as intended, minimizing the risk of vulnerabilities or bugs.
Forward Forward refers to a contract or transaction that is set to occur at a future date. It involves the agreement to buy or sell an asset, such as a cryptocurrency, at a predetermined price and time, providing participants with the ability to hedge or speculate on price movements.
Fractionalization Fractionalization refers to the process of dividing an asset, such as a cryptocurrency or a tokenized asset, into smaller fractional units. This enables multiple investors to own a portion of the asset, providing greater accessibility and liquidity in the market.
Fractionalized NFT Fractionalized NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens) are a type of digital asset that allows multiple individuals or entities to own a portion of an NFT. This means that the ownership of an NFT can be split into multiple fractions, each owned by different individuals. Fractionalized NFTs are facilitated through the use of smart contracts, which allows for the automated management of the fractions and their ownership. Fractionalization of NFTs provides a way for individuals who may not be able to afford the entire NFT to invest in it and benefit from its increasing value.
Fraud Proof Fraud Proof refers to a mechanism or technology that provides evidence or guarantees the security and integrity of a transaction or system, making it resistant to fraudulent activities and manipulation.
fren (friend) “fren” is a slang term derived from “friend” that refers to someone who is part of the same cryptocurrency community or shares a common interest in cryptocurrencies. It is often used to express camaraderie and a sense of belonging within the crypto community.
Frictionless Frictionless refers to the seamless and efficient nature of transactions facilitated by cryptocurrencies, where there are minimal barriers, delays, or costs involved in transferring funds or assets between parties. It emphasizes the ease and speed of conducting transactions without the need for intermediaries or traditional financial institutions.
Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis, Serenity  these names are associated with different network upgrades within Ethereum, which represent improvements in the security, scalability and functionality of the platform. “Frontier” refers to the original version of Ethereum launched in 2015. “Homestead” represents the network’s first major update in 2016 to further enhance its stability and security. Subsequently, “Metropolis” and “Serenity” serve to describe upcoming upgrades aimed at improving efficiency, privacy, and overall user experience.
FUD (fear, uncertainty, doubt) FUD stands for “fear, uncertainty, doubt” and refers to the spreading of negative or misleading information about a cryptocurrency or the market in order to create fear and doubt among investors. It is often used as a tactic to manipulate market sentiment and influence people’s decisions regarding buying, selling, or holding cryptocurrencies.
FUDster A FUDster refers to a person who spreads fear, uncertainty, and doubt (FUD) in the crypto community. They often disseminate negative or misleading information to create panic or manipulate market sentiment.
Full Node A Full Noderefers to a computer or device that maintains a complete and up-to-date copy of a blockchain network’s entire transaction history. It validates and relays transactions and blocks, contributing to the security and decentralization of the network.
Fungible “Fungible” goods may only be differentiated by weight, class or amount meaning that their single units are identical. Fiat currencies are fungible and many crypto currencies as well. NFTs, which are by definition non-fungible, may be differentiated from any other token by pertaining a unique code.
Fungible/Fungibility Fungible/Fungibility refers to the property of an asset or token that can be exchanged on a one-to-one basis with other units of the same type, without any unique distinguishing features. It means that each unit of a cryptocurrency is identical and can be interchanged with another unit of the same cryptocurrency, just like how one dollar bill can be exchanged for another dollar bill.


Gains Gains refer to the increase in the value or profitability of a cryptocurrency investment. It represents the positive return or profit earned by an investor when the price of a cryptocurrency rises over time.
GameFi GameFi is a term that combines elements of gaming and decentralized finance (DeFi). It refers to the integration of gaming mechanics and rewards with blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies, allowing players to earn, trade, and utilize digital assets within games or gaming platforms.
Gas Gas is a unit of measurement in blockchain networks that quantifies the computational effort required to execute transactions or smart contracts. It determines the fees paid by users to incentivize miners or validators to process their transactions and maintain the network’s security and integrity.
Gas Fee Gas fee, in the context of cryptocurrency, refers to the transaction cost required to perform operations or execute smart contracts on a blockchain network. It serves as an incentive for miners to process and validate transactions, and the fee amount is determined by factors such as network congestion and complexity of the transaction.
Gas Limit Gas Limit refers to the maximum amount of computational work or operations allowed to be executed in a blockchain network for a specific transaction or smart contract. It helps regulate the resource consumption and cost associated with executing actions on the network, such as computation and storage.
Gas Price refers to the cost associated with executing transactions or smart contracts on a blockchain network. Gas is a unit of measurement that quantifies the computational effort required to process and validate a transaction or execute a smart contract. Gas price, expressed in the native cryptocurrency of the blockchain (e.g., Ether for Ethereum), represents the amount users are willing to pay per unit of gas to prioritize their transactions within the network.
Gas War In a crypto gas war multiple participants compete for the limited processing capacity of a blockchain network by offering higher transaction fees or gas fees. This competition for transaction processing can result in higher fees for users who want their transactions to be processed quickly. In some cases, it can even lead to network congestion and longer confirmation times, as the network struggles to keep up with the high transaction volume.
gems “gems” refers to digital assets or tokens that are considered to have great potential or value. These gems can be lesser-known cryptocurrencies or projects that are believed to be promising investments or have unique features in the crypto space.
Generation Transaction A generation transaction, also known as a coinbase transaction, is the first transaction in a new block of a cryptocurrency blockchain. It creates new cryptocurrency tokens and rewards the miner or validator who successfully adds the block to the blockchain network.
Genesis Block The Genesis block is the first block of a blockchain. In the case of the bitcoin blockchain, the Genesis block was mined on 3 January 2009. 
Genesis Vision Genesis Vision is a decentralized platform that connects investors with professional traders and asset managers, allowing individuals to invest in various financial markets using cryptocurrencies. It enables transparent and secure investment opportunities while leveraging the benefits of blockchain technology.
Get Off Zero Get Off Zero refers to the act of initiating or starting one’s cryptocurrency investment journey by acquiring a certain amount of cryptocurrency. It emphasizes the importance of taking the first step and not staying on the sidelines with zero crypto holdings.
Gifto Gifto is a cryptocurrency designed for digital gifting and content monetization. It enables users to send virtual gifts and tokens to content creators as a way to support and reward their work within various online platforms.
Git Git refers to a widely used version control system for tracking changes in code and collaborating on software development projects. It allows multiple developers to work on a project simultaneously, facilitating transparency, collaboration, and efficient code management in the crypto industry.
GM GM stands for “Good Morning” and is commonly used as a greeting or salutation in online crypto communities and social media platforms. It signifies a friendly and informal way of starting a conversation or engaging with others in the crypto community.
gm (good morning) Crypto slang for “good morning”; a positive reinforcement widely used on investing forums and chats to promote good energy
Gn Crypto slang for “good night”; it is often used in crypto communities and chats as a friendly way to bid farewell at the end of the day.
Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency Gold-backed currency is a monetary system where the value of the currency is tied to the value of gold.
Golem Golem is a decentralized network that enables users to rent out their unused computing power to others in exchange for Golem Network Tokens (GNT). It allows for distributed processing of complex computations and tasks, creating a marketplace for computing power in the crypto space.
Governance Refers to the decision-making mechanisms and processes within blockchain-based protocols. It involves collective participation and voting by token holders to determine protocol upgrades, parameter changes, funding allocations, and other important decisions, fostering transparency and community involvement in protocol governance.
Governance Token A form of token that grants holders with the authority to engage in decision-making and governance activities within a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) or blockchain-based protocol. These tokens serve as a representation of voting rights and influence, allowing holders to propose and vote on various changes, including upgrades, funding allocations, and policy decisions. Governance tokens may have the characteristics of a shareholding in a certain project/entity.
Governance Vote A voting process undertaken by holders of governance tokens on proposals concerning the associated project or protocol on a blockchain. Governance votes typically concern blockchain functions, features, fees, and strategic development of the underlying project.
Goxxed/Goxed Goxxed or Goxed refers to a situation where individuals or entities experience significant financial losses due to the collapse or failure of a cryptocurrency exchange, similar to the infamous Mt. Gox exchange incident in 2014. It is often used to describe the impact of such events on individuals who held their funds on the exchange.
Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) A Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images and graphics. In the context of crypto, GPUs are commonly used in mining cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, where they perform complex mathematical calculations to validate transactions and secure the network.
Green Bitcoin Bitcoin that is mined using renewable energy
Group Mining Group Mining, also known as mining pool, refers to the practice of multiple miners pooling their computing power and resources together to increase their chances of successfully mining blocks and earning rewards. It allows participants to collectively solve complex mathematical problems and share the resulting rewards based on their contributed computational effort.
Gwei Gwei is a unit of measurement in the Ethereum network used to quantify the cost or value of transactions and smart contract operations. It represents a fraction of one Ether, with 1 Gwei equal to 0.000000001 Ether (1^(-9) Ether).


Hack A hack refers to unauthorized access, exploitation, or manipulation of a cryptocurrency network, platform, or wallet, typically resulting in the theft or compromise of digital assets or sensitive information.
Halving/Halvening The halving or halvening refers to the point in time when the block reward for mining bitcoin is reduced by 50%. This reduction occurs after every 210,000 blocks are mined (which is more or less every four years).
Hard Cap A hard cap refers to a specific limit on the total supply of a particular cryptocurrency that can ever be created. This is done to create scarcity and increase the value of the cryptocurrency over time. Once the hard cap is reached, no new coins can be created, which helps to prevent inflation of the currency.
Hard Fork A hard fork is a type of software upgrade that occurs on a blockchain network, where a new set of rules are introduced that are not compatible with the older version. As a result, the blockchain splits into two separate networks, and any nodes or miners who continue to use the old version will be on a different chain from those who upgrade to the new version. This can result in a divergence in the transaction histories and can lead to the creation of a new cryptocurrency.
Hardware Wallet A hardware wallet is a physical device that securely stores private keys used for cryptocurrency transactions. It provides an extra layer of security by keeping the private keys offline, protecting them from potential online threats such as hacking or malware attacks.
Hash A hash is a unique digital fingerprint generated from a specific set of data using a mathematical algorithm. In cryptocurrencies, hashes are commonly used to verify the integrity of data and ensure the security of transactions and blocks in the blockchain network.
Hash Chain A hash chain in cryptocurrency is a sequential linking of cryptographic hashes. The hashes in the chain are created using a hashing algorithm, which takes digital data as input and produces a fixed-size string of characters as output.
Hash Crash A Hash Crash typically refers to a situation where a computer program or system becomes unresponsive or crashes due to an excessive demand on its processing power or memory caused by a hash function. A hash function is a mathematical algorithm that takes in data and converts it into a fixed size output. In some cases, if the input data is too large or complex, the hash function may take a long time to compute, which can result in a system slowdown or crash.
Hash Digest A hash digest is a fixed-size alphanumeric string that is generated by applying a cryptographic hashing algorithm to a data message. This hash digest is unique to the message and can be used to verify the integrity of the original data. Hash digests are commonly used in digital signatures and checksums to provide a secure means of verifying the authenticity and integrity of data.
Hash Function A Hash Function is a mathematical function which takes in an input of arbitrary size and produces a fixed size output, typically a sequence of letters and numbers. The output generated by a hash function is often referred to as a “hash” or “message digest”. The main purpose of a hash function is to map data of any size to a unique and fixed size output.
Hash Rate Hash rate is a measure of the computational power that a miner or a mining network contributes to processing transactions on a blockchain. It is essentially the speed at which a mining machine can complete the mathematical calculations needed to process transactions on the blockchain network. It is measured in hashes per second (H/s), and the higher the hash rate, the more likely a miner is to successfully mine a block and receive the associated rewards.
Hashing Hashing is the process of converting input data of any size into a fixed-size alphanumeric string using a cryptographic hash function. It is widely used in cryptography to ensure data integrity, verify passwords, and secure transactions in blockchain networks.
Hashing Power Hashing power refers to the computing power that is used to perform the cryptographic hashing algorithm. In the context of blockchain technology, hashing power is used to validate and process transactions on the network. The more hashing power a user or group of users (known as a mining pool) controls, the more secure the network becomes, as it becomes more difficult for an attacker to manipulate or disrupt the blockchain.
HD Wallet A Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet) is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that uses a deterministic algorithm to generate a sequence of private and public keys. These keys are organized in a hierarchical structure, with a single root seed that generates all the subsequent keys in the wallet. This allows users to generate an unlimited number of addresses for receiving and sending cryptocurrency, without having to manually backup each individual key. HD Wallets also offer increased security and privacy features, as they generate unique keys for each transaction and do not reuse addresses.
Hedera Hashgraph Hedera Hashgraph is a distributed public ledger technology that uses a consensus algorithm called Hashgraph to achieve fast, secure, and fair transactions. It aims to provide a platform for building decentralized applications (dApps) with high throughput and low latency.
Hedging Hedging refers to a risk management strategy in which individuals or investors take positions to offset potential losses in another investment. In the context of crypto, hedging involves making trades or acquiring assets to minimize potential losses from price fluctuations or market volatility.
Hidden Cap Hidden Cap refers to a predetermined maximum limit on the amount of funds that can be raised during a token sale or initial coin offering (ICO), which is not publicly disclosed. It is implemented to create scarcity and exclusivity in token distribution while avoiding excessive demand and potential network congestion.
Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet) A Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet) is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that uses a deterministic algorithm to generate a sequence of private and public keys. These keys are organized in a hierarchical structure, with a single root seed that generates all the subsequent keys in the wallet. This allows users to generate an unlimited number of addresses for receiving and sending cryptocurrency, without having to manually backup each individual key. HD Wallets also offer increased security and privacy features, as they generate unique keys for each transaction and do not reuse addresses.
HODL “Hold on for Dear Life” – the term derived from a misspelling of “hold” and means buying and holding cryptocurrencies.
HODLACL “Hold on for Dear Life and Complain a Little” – describes the process of HODLing while also complaining about it.
hodling/hodler see “HODL”
Homomorphic Encryption Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption that allows computations to be performed on the encrypted data without needing to decrypt it. This means that data can be kept secure even while being processed by third-party services.
Honeypot A fake computer system created to attract hackers into trying to access an information system without authorization so that it can be detected, analyzed, repelled, and/or countered
hopium (hope + opium) Hopium is a term used to describe an irrational and unrealistic optimism or exaggerated hopefulness, often in the face of negative circumstances or evidence to the contrary. The term is derived from the words “hope” and “opium,” suggesting that the hopeful feeling is so strong that it can be likened to a drug addiction.
Hosted Wallet A hosted wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that is maintained and managed by a third-party provider on behalf of its users. The provider stores the user’s private keys and manages the security of the wallet. Users can access their wallet through a web or mobile interface provided by the host. Hosted wallets are generally easy to use and are often free, but they are not as secure as self-custody wallets, where users control their private keys directly. Examples of hosted wallets include Coinbase, Binance, and Kraken.
Hot Storage Hot storage, also known as online storage, is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet and allows for access to the stored digital assets at any time. This type of storage is used for frequently traded assets that need to be quickly and easily accessible. However, hot wallets are more susceptible to hacking attempts or other forms of attacks due to their online presence and therefore, are considered less secure compared to cold storage solutions. Examples of hot wallets include exchange wallets, mobile wallets, and desktop wallets.
Hot Wallet A hot wallet is a type of digital wallet that is connected to the internet and typically used for storing cryptocurrency for a short period of time. It enables easy access to funds, quickly allowing for transactions to take place. Hot wallets typically have lower security measures as compared to cold wallets since they are connected to the internet, which makes them more vulnerable to hacking attacks. Therefore, it is generally recommended to use a hot wallet for small amounts of cryptocurrency and to regularly transfer larger amounts to cold storage for additional security.
Howey Test The Howey Test is a legal test used in the United States to determine whether or not a transaction qualifies as an investment contract. It was established by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1946 in a case called SEC v. Howey. Under the Howey Test, a transaction is considered an investment contract if it involves the investment of money in a common enterprise with a reasonable expectation of profits to be derived from the entrepreneurial or managerial efforts of others. This means that if someone invests money in a business or venture with the expectation of making a profit from the work of others, it may be considered an investment contract and subject to securities laws and regulations.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTTP, or Hypertext Transfer Protocol, is a communication protocol that allows data to be transferred over the internet. It is the foundation of the World Wide Web and is used to retrieve and send information between web servers and web browsers. HTTP is a client-server protocol, which means that a client (such as a web browser) makes requests to a server, and the server responds with the requested information.
Hybrid POW/POS Hybrid POW/POS is a hybrid consensus mechanism used in some blockchain networks to validate transactions and blocks. In this mechanism, both Proof of Work (POW) and Proof of Stake (POS) consensus algorithms are used in combination.
Hyperledger/Hyperledger Foundation Hyperledger is an open-source project hosted by the Linux Foundation. It is a global collaboration of various organizations and companies that are working together to develop enterprise-grade, open-source distributed ledger frameworks and tools. The Hyperledger project aims to create an ecosystem of blockchain-based technologies that are secure, stable, and scalable for various industries’ needs such as finance, healthcare, supply chain management, and more.


ICO (Initial Coin Offering) An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a fundraising method used by cryptocurrency startups to raise capital. It involves issuing and selling tokens or coins to investors in exchange for funding, often in the form of established cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum, with the aim of financing project development and operations.
ICON ICON is a blockchain platform that aims to connect various independent blockchains, allowing them to interact and communicate with each other. It serves as a bridge for seamless transactions and data exchange between different blockchain networks, promoting interoperability and fostering a more connected crypto ecosystem.
Immutable Immutable refers to the characteristic of data or information that cannot be altered or modified once it has been recorded on a blockchain or distributed ledger. This property ensures the integrity and trustworthiness of transactions and makes the records resistant to tampering or manipulation.
Impermanent Loss An Impermanent Loss is a potential loss experienced by liquidity providers in decentralized exchanges due to the volatility of the assets they provide. It occurs when the value of the assets changes during the liquidity provision period, leading to a temporary reduction in overall value compared to simply holding the assets.
Incentive Mechanism Incentive Mechanism means a system designed to motivate participants by offering rewards or incentives for specific behaviors or actions. It is used in crypto networks to align the interests of network participants and ensure the security, stability, and functionality of the network.
Inflation Inflation means the increase in the supply of a particular cryptocurrency over time. It is typically controlled by predetermined rules within the cryptocurrency’s protocol, and it can have an impact on the value and purchasing power of the cryptocurrency.
Initial Bounty Offering (IBO) An Initial Bounty Offering (IBO) is a fundraising mechanism used in the cryptocurrency industry, in which a new project rewards participants or “bounty hunters” with tokens for completing certain tasks or activities, such as promoting the project on social media, creating videos or articles, testing the platform, or finding bugs. The participants are incentivized to help spread the word about the project and attract more users to the platform in exchange for a share of the initial token supply. This can help the project gain visibility and secure early adopters, while also creating a loyal community around the project.
Initial Coin Offering (ICO) An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a fundraising mechanism used by crypto startups, which involves the sale of newly created tokens to investors, usually in exchange for Ether (ETH). The funds raised are typically used to develop the envisaged project.
Initial Decentralized Offering (IDO) An Initial Decentralized Offering (IDO) is a fundraising method used in the crypto space, where new tokens are issued and distributed directly to participants on a decentralized platform. IDOs aim to provide more inclusive and accessible opportunities for investors to participate in token sales and support decentralized projects.
Initial Exchange Offering (IEO) An Initial Exchange Offering (IEO) is a crowdfunding method where a cryptocurrency exchange facilitates the token sale on behalf of a project, allowing investors to purchase tokens directly from the exchange. It provides a streamlined and secure process for token sales, leveraging the exchange’s platform and user base.
Initial Token Offering (ITO) An Initial Token Offering (ITO) is a type of fundraising event in which a new cryptocurrency project sells its tokens to investors in exchange for funding. It’s similar to an Initial Public Offering (IPO) in the traditional stock market, but with a focus on the crypto industry.
Instamine Instamine refers to a situation in which a significant amount of cryptocurrency is generated or mined quickly and disproportionately by a small group of individuals or developers at the early stages of a cryptocurrency’s launch. This can lead to an unfair distribution of coins and potential market manipulation.
Interface Interface refers to the point of interaction between a user and a cryptocurrency platform or software, allowing users to access and interact with the functionalities and features of the system. It serves as a bridge between users and the underlying technology, enabling seamless user experience and control over their crypto assets.
Intermediary In the financial context, “Intermediaries” are entities which connect the primary transactional parties (such as payer and payee, issuer and investor or lender and borrower) with each other. Intermediaries can be banks, (crypto-)exchanges, payment service provers, custodians as well as other entities with the described functionalities.
Interoperability Interoperability refers to the ability of different blockchain networks and cryptocurrencies to seamlessly communicate, interact, and exchange information or value with each other. It enables cross-chain functionality and facilitates the transfer of assets and data across different crypto ecosystems, enhancing connectivity and expanding the possibilities within the crypto space.
InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a decentralized protocol and network for storing and sharing files in a peer-to-peer manner. It uses content-addressing and cryptographic techniques to provide secure and efficient file storage and retrieval, making it a popular choice for decentralized applications (DApps) and blockchain-based systems.
IOST IOST (Internet of Services Token) is a cryptocurrency and blockchain platform designed to provide a scalable and secure infrastructure for hosting decentralized applications (dApps). It aims to offer high transaction throughput, low latency, and a user-friendly environment for developers and users alike.
IOTA IOTA is a distributed ledger technology designed for the Internet of Things (IoT) that aims to enable feeless and scalable transactions between machines. It uses a unique consensus mechanism called the Tangle, which is a directed acyclic graph (DAG), instead of a traditional blockchain, to achieve high throughput and network scalability.
Irreversible Transaction An Irreversible Transaction means a transaction that, once confirmed and added to the blockchain, cannot be reversed or undone. It is a fundamental characteristic of cryptocurrencies that ensures the immutability and security of transactions, providing finality and eliminating the need for trust in centralized intermediaries.
IYKYK IYKYK stands for ‘If You Know, You Know,’ and it is a phrase often used in the crypto community to indicate insider knowledge or understanding of a specific crypto-related concept or trend.


Joy of Missing Out (JOMO) Joy of Missing Out (JOMO) is a term used in the crypto community to describe the sense of relief and contentment that comes from not participating in or being influenced by the fear of missing out (FOMO) on volatile or speculative crypto investments. It signifies a deliberate choice to prioritize long-term financial stability and emotional well-being over short-term market fluctuations.


Key A Key is a unique string of characters that serves as a cryptographic identifier. It is used to secure and control access to digital assets, such as wallets or encrypted messages, and can be either a public key for receiving funds or a private key for authorizing transactions and accessing funds.
Know Your Customer (KYC) Know Your Customer (KYC) is a process used by cryptocurrency platforms and services to verify the identity of their users. It involves collecting and verifying personal information to prevent fraud, money laundering, and other illicit activities in the crypto space.
Know Your Transaction (KYT) Know Your Transaction (KYT) is a practice used by cryptocurrency platforms and services to monitor and analyze transactions for potential risks and compliance with regulatory requirements. It involves the tracking and analysis of transactional data to detect suspicious or illicit activities in the crypto space.
Komodo Komodo is a blockchain platform that focuses on privacy, security, and interoperability. It provides developers with tools to create their own independent blockchains and offers features like anonymous transactions and decentralized exchanges.
Kusama Kusama is a decentralized platform built on the Polkadot network that enables developers to experiment and deploy new blockchain projects. It serves as a “canary network” for testing and validating innovative ideas before they are implemented on the more secure and stable Polkadot network.


Lambo A term establishing trust by the crypto investors in holding cryptocurrencies in the hope that eventually they will be able to afford a Lamborghini
Latency Latency refers to the time delay between the initiation of a transaction or request and the completion of the corresponding operation. In the context of crypto, it relates to the speed at which transactions or data can be processed, and lower latency is generally desirable for efficient and timely execution of crypto operations.
Layer 1/Layer 2 Layer1 refers to the base layer of a blockchain or cryptocurrency network, which typically handles core functions like transaction validation and consensus. Layer2 refers to additional protocols or solutions built on top of Layer1 to enhance scalability and improve transaction speed, such as off-chain scaling solutions or sidechains. It helps to relieve congestion and increase the efficiency of the underlying Layer1 network.
Ledger A Ledger is a decentralized and transparent record or database that stores all transactions and balances of a particular cryptocurrency. It serves as the foundation for verifying and maintaining the integrity of the crypto’s transaction history.
Leverage Leverage (in a financial context) refers to the use of borrowed funds or debt to increase the potential return of an investment or to magnify the impact of an action.
Leverage Token A Leverage Token is a type of cryptocurrency derivative that allows traders to amplify their exposure to price movements of an underlying asset using borrowed funds. It provides leverage, allowing traders to potentially magnify their gains or losses based on the price movements of the asset.
Leveraged Trading Leveraged trading in the context of crypto refers to the practice of borrowing funds to amplify the potential returns or losses on a trade. It involves using leverage, usually provided by a trading platform, to trade with a larger position size than the trader’s initial capital, potentially magnifying both profits and losses.
Lex Cryptographica Lex Cryptographica is a term used to describe the set of laws and principles that govern cryptographic technologies and their use. This includes the use of encryption to protect data, the use of digital signatures to verify authenticity, and other related technologies.
LFG LFG stands for ‘Let’s F***ing Go,’ and it is a commonly used expression in the crypto community to express excitement and enthusiasm for a positive price movement or market opportunity.
Lightning Network The Lightning Network is a layer 2 scaling solution for cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, that enables faster and cheaper transactions by conducting them off-chain. It allows users to create payment channels, facilitating instant and low-cost transfers while alleviating the congestion on the main blockchain.
Lightweight Node A Lightweight Node is a type of software or device that participates in a cryptocurrency network by maintaining a partial copy of the blockchain. Unlike full nodes, lightweight nodes don’t store the entire transaction history, making them more resource-efficient but with reduced security guarantees.
Liquidity Liquidity referes to the the influence of individual trades (buy or sell) of an asset on its market price. In a market where a cryptocurrency is considered “highly liquid,” the buying and selling of that cryptocurrency by market participants have minimal impact on the overall market price, allowing for transactions without substantial price fluctuations.
Liquidity Mining Liquidity Mining is a way for blockchain projects and decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms to incentivize users to provide liquidity to their ecosystem by offering them rewards in the form of tokens or other assets. Users provide liquidity by depositing their digital assets into a liquidity pool, which is then used to facilitate trades for other users. In exchange for providing liquidity, users are rewarded with tokens or other assets, usually a percentage of the transaction fees generated by the liquidity pool. Liquidity Mining is a popular tool for DeFi platforms to attract users, stimulate trading activity, and build a robust ecosystem.
Liquidity Pool Liquidity pools are based on smart contracts, and hold cryptocurrencies provided by Liquidity Providers, enabling decentralized exchanges (DEXs) to utilize automated market makers  for trade matching instead of traditional order book trading. Liquidity providers are encouraged to keep staking their cryptocurrencies by receiving various benefits, including participation in yield farming, governance tokens, and a share of trading fees. The pool ensures that there is sufficient liquidity available for trading, improving efficiency and reducing slippage on the platform.
Liquidity Provider Refers to an individual staking or lending their crypto assets to a Liquidity Pool to facilitate trading processes in exchange for a (staking/lending) reward.
Liquidity Provider (LP) Token A token issued to a liquidity provider participating in a decentralized exchange operating with an automated market maker protocol. LP Tokens represent the proportionate share of a crypto liquidity provider in the liquidity pool.
Listing Listing refers to the process of adding a cryptocurrency to an exchange or platform, making it available for trading. It allows users to buy, sell, and trade the listed cryptocurrency within the exchange’s ecosystem.
Litecoin Litecoin is a popular cryptocurrency that was created as a “lite” version of Bitcoin. It offers faster transaction confirmation times and uses a different hashing algorithm, making it a viable alternative for digital payments and a valuable asset in the crypto market.
Locktime Refers to a smart contract mechanism that imposes limitations on the processing of a transaction until a designated time or block height is reached on the blockchai
Long/Long Position A long position refers to a situation in which an investor or trader holds an asset with the expectation that ist value will increase over time, allowing them to profit from the price appreciation.
looks rare “looks rare” refers to a characteristic of a particular digital asset or token that appears to have a limited supply or availability, potentially making it more valuable or desirable to collectors and investors. This perception of rarity can influence the market dynamics and pricing of the asset.


Mainnet Mainnet refers to the main blockchain network of a cryptocurrency project where actual transactions occur and the network is fully functional. It is the live version of the blockchain where users can participate in activities such as sending and receiving coins or tokens.
Maker In the realm of cryptocurrencies, a “Maker” refers to a participant or trader who adds liquidity to the market by placing limit orders on an exchange. Makers are typically rewarded with lower transaction fees as an incentive for contributing to the liquidity of the platform.
Margin Bear Position A Margin Bear Position is a financial trading strategy in which an investor enters into a trade with the expectation that the price of a particular asset (such as a stock or commodity) will decline in value. The investor borrows money from a broker to finance the trade, and uses the borrowed funds to purchase the asset. If the price of the asset falls, the investor will sell the asset for a profit, pay back the borrowed funds to the broker, and pocket the difference as their profit. Alternatively, if the price of the asset rises, the investor will take a loss on the trade and will need to pay back the borrowed funds to the broker, which can result in a substantial financial loss. Margin Bear Positions can be risky and require careful attention to market conditions and investment strategy.
Margin Bull Position A Margin Bull Position is a trading strategy in which an investor buys a financial asset (such as stocks or commodities) with the expectation that its value will rise. The investor typically uses borrowed funds (i.e. margin) to increase the size of their investment and potentially enhance their returns.
Market Capitalization (Market Cap) Market Capitalization, or Market Cap for short, is a financial metric used to measure the total value of a publicly traded company. It is calculated by multiplying the current market price of a company’s outstanding shares by the total number of shares outstanding. 
Market Volatility Market volatility in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the rapid and significant price fluctuations experienced by digital assets. It indicates the level of uncertainty and risk associated with the market, as prices can quickly rise or fall, impacting investment returns.
Markets in Crypto-Assets Regulation (MiCA) Markets in Crypto-Assets Regulation (MiCA) is a proposed regulation by the European Union aimed at establishing a comprehensive regulatory framework for crypto-assets. The MiCA proposal covers a wide range of crypto-assets, including cryptocurrencies, stablecoins, and utility tokens.
Masternodes Masternodes are specialized nodes on a decentralized cryptocurrency network that perform specific functions beyond basic transaction verification and block creation. In return for dedicating their computing power and resources to perform these advanced functions, masternode operators receive rewards in the form of cryptocurrency.
Max Supply Max Supply refers to the maximum amount or limit of a cryptocurrency or token that will ever be created or made available in circulation. It represents the total quantity of the cryptocurrency that can exist, ensuring scarcity and providing information about its long-term availability and potential value. For example, Bitcoin has a predetermined maximum supply of 21 million coins. Once this limit is reached, no new Bitcoin can be created, ensuring scarcity and potentially influencing its value in the market.
Maximalist/Maxi Maximalist or Maxi refers to an individual or group of individuals who strongly advocate for and support a single cryptocurrency or blockchain, often to the exclusion or dismissal of other cryptocurrencies or blockchain projects. They believe that the chosen cryptocurrency or blockchain has the potential to fulfill all or most use cases and become the dominant technology in the crypto space.
MCAP MCAP is a shorthand term for market capitalization, which represents the total value of a cryptocurrency. It is calculated by multiplying the current price of a cryptocurrency by its total supply, indicating its relative size and importance in the crypto market.
Meatspace/Meatverse Meatspace or Meatverse refers to the physical world or reality outside of the digital realm of cryptocurrencies. It is a term often used to contrast with the virtual nature of digital currencies and emphasize the distinction between online interactions and real-world interactions.
Memecoin A cryptocurrency which has its origins in an interent meme. Some examples of memcoins are Dogecoin; Pepe and; Snek.
Mempool Mempool is the short form of “memory pool” and refers to the area in a cryptocurrency network where pending transactions are stored before being confirmed and added to the blockchain. It serves as a temporary storage space for transactions waiting to be processed by miners or validators.
Mempool Congestion Mempool Congestion refers to a situation in which the memory pool (mempool) of a cryptocurrency network becomes filled with pending transactions, causing delays in transaction confirmations and potentially higher fees. It is a common phenomenon in blockchain networks with high transaction volumes and limited processing capacity.
Merkle Root The hash of all transactions in a Merkle tree, that is included in every block in a header in order to verify that the transactions within that block have not been altered
Merkle Tree A mathematical data structure that is used to efficiently and safely compute blockchain data in a structure that is similar to the one of a tree
Metadata Metadata refers to additional information or data that provides context or describes other data. In the context of crypto, metadata can be attached to transactions, tokens, or other digital assets to convey relevant details such as ownership, timestamps, or transaction history, enhancing the functionality and understanding of the underlying crypto assets.
Metal In the world of cryptocurrency, “Metal” refers to a digital currency that aims to provide a seamless and user-friendly payment experience, utilizing blockchain technology. It offers a mobile app and rewards users with Metal tokens for making transactions, contributing to the adoption and integration of cryptocurrencies in everyday life.
MetaMask MetaMask is a cryptocurrency wallet and browser extension that allows users to interact with decentralized applications (DApps) on the Ethereum blockchain. It provides a secure and convenient way to manage digital assets and interact with the decentralized web.
Metaverse A concept of an interconnected virtual world that trancends the physical universe in a way that allows its users to experience alternate realities
MEW MEW (MyEtherWallet) is a free and open-source web-based wallet that allows users to securely store, manage, and interact with Ethereum-based cryptocurrencies. It provides users with a user-friendly interface to access their Ethereum accounts and perform various blockchain operations.
MiCA MiCA (Markets in Crypto-Assets) is a regulatory framework proposed by the European Commission to regulate and harmonize the crypto-asset market within the European Union. It aims to establish a comprehensive set of rules and requirements for crypto-asset service providers, with the goal of enhancing consumer protection and promoting market integrity in the crypto industry.
MicroBitcoin (uBTC) MicroBitcoin (uBTC) is a unit of measurement used in the context of cryptocurrencies, particularly Bitcoin, where 1 uBTC represents one millionth of a Bitcoin. It allows for smaller denominations and transactions within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Microtransaction A Microtransaction refers to a small financial transaction conducted in the digital realm, often involving tiny amounts of cryptocurrency. It enables quick and low-cost transfers of value, making it suitable for various online services, digital goods, and micropayments.
Mine/Mining The preferred activity for those (today largely large organizations) that would rather spend enormous resources on using extremely sophisticated computers to solve extremely difficult math problems than simply purchase Bitcoin like the rest of us. More Bitcoin is created through the process of mining, and miners also perform the POW required to authenticate transactions on the Blockchain
Miner A mining worker, as well as a way for computer nerds to sound tough when asked what they do. Additionally, the Miners take on the role of shareholders and are granted voting privileges whenever a change, like a Fork, is suggested
Mining Mining is the process of verifying and adding new transactions to a cryptocurrency’s blockchain by solving complex mathematical problems. Miners use specialized hardware to compete for the chance to earn rewards in the form of newly minted coins and transaction fees, which helps secure the network and maintain the integrity of the cryptocurrency system.
Mining Contract A contract whereby a user can pay for the production of mining capacity through investment, rental, or some other method
Mining Difficulty Mining difficulty is a measure of how hard it is to mine new blocks in a blockchain network. It adjusts periodically to ensure that blocks are mined at a consistent rate, maintaining the security and stability of the network.
Mining Pool A team of individuals who cooperate and pool their processing power to increase the likelihood of successfully mining a block. In proportion to the share they contributed to mining the block, the players divided the pool’s prize
Mining Rig A computer set up specifically for mining cryptocurrency
Mint/Minting Development/creation of new tokens
Mimblewimble Mimblewimble is a privacy-focused blockchain protocol that aims to enhance the anonymity and scalability of cryptocurrency transactions by removing unnecessary transaction data while ensuring the security of the network.
Mixer A Mixer, also known as a tumbling or mixing service, is a privacy-enhancing tool used in cryptocurrencies to obfuscate the transaction history and make it difficult to trace the origin of funds. It works by pooling and mixing multiple users’ transactions, making it harder to link the sender and receiver addresses.
Mnemonic Phrase  A mnemonic phrase, also known as a seed phrase, is a string of words used to backup and recover a cryptocurrency wallet. It is usually composed of 12 or 24 words that are generated randomly by the wallet. By writing down the mnemonic phrase and storing it in a safe place, the user can restore access to their cryptocurrencies in case their wallet is lost, stolen, or damaged. Mnemonic phrases are an important security feature of cryptocurrency wallets and are used to ensure that user funds are not lost due to technical issues or errors. It is essential that mnemonic phrases are kept confidential and not shared with anyone.
Module (or Cryptographic Module) A cryptographic module is a piece of hardware or software that is designed to securely perform cryptographic operations such as encryption, decryption, and key management. It is used to protect sensitive information and ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data.
Monero Monero is a privacy-focused cryptocurrency that prioritizes anonymity and untraceability. It uses advanced cryptographic techniques to ensure secure and private transactions, making it difficult to track the sender, recipient, and the amount involved in a transaction.
Money Services Business (MSB) A Money Services Business (MSB) is a term used to describe a type of financial institution or entity that provides various financial services such as money transmission, currency exchange, check cashing, or issuing traveler’s checks.
Money Transmission Money transmission refers to the process of transferring money from one individual or entity to another. It involves the electronic transfer of funds through various methods such as wire transfers, online transfers, or mobile applications.
Money Transmitter A person or organization that conducts business in the field of Money Transmission or represents themselves as doing so
Money Transmitter License A Money Transmitter License is a legal authorization required by a financial institution or individual to operate as a money transmitter.
Moon/Mooning A slang term used to describe a cryptocurrency that is mooning or on its way to the moon because its price has increased
mooning/to the moon “Mooning” or “to the moon” is a phrase commonly used in the context of cryptocurrencies. It refers to a significant increase in the value or price of a cryptocurrency, often resulting in substantial profits for its investors. When people say a cryptocurrency is “mooning” or “going to the moon,” they anticipate that its price will experience a rapid and substantial upward movement.
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) is a technical analysis indicator used to identify potential trends and generate trading signals in financial markets. It calculates the difference between two moving averages of an asset’s price, typically a shorter-term moving average and a longer-term moving average.
MSB Doubled with 391
Mt. Gox Mt. Gox was a prominent cryptocurrency exchange that was based in Japan. It was one of the earliest and largest platforms for buying and selling Bitcoin. However, in 2014, Mt. Gox experienced a major security breach and subsequently filed for bankruptcy. This incident resulted in the loss of a significant amount of Bitcoin for its users. Mt. Gox’s downfall highlighted the importance of security measures and regulatory oversight in the cryptocurrency industry.
Multilateral Trading Facilities Multilateral Trading Facilities (MTFs) are trading venues that enable multiple participants, such as investment firms and banks, to trade financial instruments. These instruments can include stocks, bonds, derivatives, and other securities.
Multipool Mining Multipool mining refers to a mining strategy where miners switch between different cryptocurrencies to mine the most profitable one at any given time. Instead of focusing on a single cryptocurrency, multipool miners utilize specialized software that automatically determines which cryptocurrency has the highest profitability based on factors such as current market prices, mining difficulty, and block rewards. By constantly monitoring and switching between different cryptocurrencies, miners aim to maximize their potential profits. This approach allows miners to adapt to changing market conditions and optimize their mining efforts.
Multi-Sig Multi-Sig, short for Multi-Signature, is a security feature used in cryptocurrency transactions. It involves multiple digital signatures from different parties to authorize a transaction. Instead of relying on a single private key to initiate a transaction, Multi-Sig requires the approval of multiple parties, typically by using their individual private keys. This adds an extra layer of security and reduces the risk of unauthorized access or fraudulent transactions.
Multi Sig Protocol A multi-signature (multi-sig) protocol is a security feature in cryptocurrency that requires multiple authorized signatures to approve a transaction. It adds an extra layer of protection by preventing single-point vulnerabilities and enhancing the security of digital assets.
Multi-Signature A multi-signature, or multi-sig, is a security feature in cryptocurrencies that requires multiple authorized parties to provide their signatures before a transaction can be executed. This adds an extra layer of protection by ensuring that no single individual can unilaterally control or manipulate the funds.
Multi-Signature Wallet A Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig) Wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that requires multiple digital signatures to authorize and complete a transaction.


Nano In the realm of cryptocurrencies, “Nano” refers to a digital currency that aims to provide fast and feeless transactions through its innovative block-lattice architecture. It offers a decentralized and environmentally friendly solution for peer-to-peer transactions, making it efficient and sustainable for everyday use.
Nationwide Multistate Licensing System (NMLS) The Nationwide Multistate Licensing System (NMLS) is a web-based platform used by state regulatory agencies in the United States to manage licenses and registrations for various financial services industries.
Native Token A native token is a cryptocurrency that is issued on its own blockchain platform. It is called “native” because it is the primary or original token of that specific blockchain.
NavCoin NavCoin refers to a decentralized cryptocurrency that focuses on privacy and user autonomy. It utilizes blockchain technology to facilitate secure and anonymous transactions, making it an attractive option for individuals seeking privacy-centric solutions in the crypto space.
Nebulas Nebulas is a blockchain platform that aims to create a decentralized and scalable ecosystem for developing and deploying blockchain applications. It provides tools and infrastructure for developers to build decentralized applications (DApps) and smart contracts, fostering innovation and collaboration within the crypto community.
Newbie Newbie is a term used in the crypto community to refer to someone who is new to the world of cryptocurrency and has limited knowledge or experience in the field. It is often used to describe beginners who are just starting to explore and learn about cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.
New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS) The New York State Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) is a regulatory agency that oversees the financial services industry in the state of New York. It was created in 2011 by merging the New York State Banking Department and the New York State Insurance Department. The agency is responsible for ensuring the safety and soundness of banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions in the state, as well as protecting consumers from predatory or fraudulent financial activities.
Nexo Nexo is a cryptocurrency lending platform that allows users to borrow against their crypto assets. It provides instant loans by utilizing blockchain technology, enabling individuals and businesses to access liquidity while retaining ownership of their digital assets.
Nexus Nexus is a term used to describe a cryptocurrency and blockchain platform that aims to provide a secure and decentralized infrastructure for various applications. It leverages innovative technology to enhance scalability, security, and efficiency in the crypto ecosystem.
NFA (not financial advice) NFA stands for “Not Financial Advice.” It is a disclaimer used to indicate that the information being provided is not intended to be financial advice and should not be relied upon as such. It is often included in online forums, social media posts, and other content related to personal finance or investments.
NGMI (not gonna make it) The phrase “NGMI (not gonna make it)” is often used to express a pessimistic sentiment about the future prospects or potential success of a particular cryptocurrency investment. It suggests a belief that the investment will not yield significant returns or achieve the desired outcome.
No-Action Letter A No-Action Letter is a written response issued by a regulatory agency, (e.g. the SEC), stating that it will not take legal action against a person or entity for a specific activity related to cryptocurrencies, providing certain conditions are met. It provides guidance on regulatory compliance and can offer some reassurance to individuals or companies operating in the crypto space.
No-Coiner A No-Coiner is a term used to describe someone who does not own or believe in cryptocurrencies, often due to skepticism, lack of interest, or distrust in the technology.
Node A computer that connects to a cryptocurrency network. The node or computer supports the network. It supports it through validation and relaying transactions. At the same time, it also gets a copy of the full blockchain
Node Validator A node validator is a participant in a blockchain network who verifies and validates transactions and ensures the accuracy and integrity of the blockchain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies by contributing to the consensus mechanism.
Node Validator Node A node validator node refers to a computer or device that runs the software responsible for validating transactions and maintaining the blockchain’s integrity in a decentralized network. These nodes play a critical role in the consensus mechanism and help ensure the security and reliability of the cryptocurrency network.
Nonce A Nonce in the context of cryptography refers to a number that is included in a cryptographic puzzle or hash function to generate a desired output. It is often used in blockchain systems to mine or validate blocks by finding a nonce that meets certain criteria.
Non-Custodial Non-Custodial refers to a system or service where users have full control and ownership of their digital assets without relying on a third-party custodian. It enables users to manage their funds directly, enhancing security and eliminating the need to trust a centralized entity.
Non-Fungible Token (NFT) A NFT is a unique digital asset that represents ownership of a specific item or piece of content, such as artwork, music, videos, or even tweets. Unlike cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, which are fungible (interchangeable for equal value units), NFTs are unique and cannot be exchanged for an equal item. They are stored on a blockchain, which is an encrypted public ledger that keeps track of ownership and transactions, ensuring authenticity, rarity, and ownership.
Non-Native Token A non-native token refers to a digital asset that is built and operates on a blockchain platform different from its own. It relies on smart contracts or protocols to interact with the underlying blockchain, enabling cross-chain compatibility and functionality.
Noob A Noob is someone who has little to no experience in a certain field. It is often used in a derogatory way.
Normie Normie is a normal person, who genreally has mainstream ideas, viewpoints etc. This term is often used to distinguish between members of a group and the outsiders/normies. It often carries a negative meaning.
Not your Keys, not your Coins The phrase ‘Not your Keys, not your Coins’ emphasizes the importance of controlling your own private keys in cryptocurrency. It signifies that if you don’t have control over the private keys of your crypto assets, you don’t truly own or have full control over those assets.
Numeraire Numeraire is a cryptocurrency token that is used to incentivize data scientists and researchers to build predictive models on the Numerai platform. It aims to create a decentralized hedge fund by rewarding participants who contribute accurate and valuable predictions for financial markets.


Ocean Protocol Ocean Protocol is a blockchain-based platform that enables the secure and privacy-preserving sharing of data. It leverages cryptocurrency and smart contracts to facilitate the exchange and monetization of data assets, empowering individuals and organizations to control and profit from their data in a decentralized manner.
OCO OCO, also known as “one cancels the other,” is a trading order strategy commonly used in crypto markets. It allows traders to place two orders simultaneously, where the execution of one order automatically cancels the other, helping to manage risk and capture trading opportunities based on specific price conditions.
Off-Chain Off-chain refers to activities or transactions that occur outside of the underlying blockchain network. It typically involves the use of secondary systems or protocols to facilitate faster and more scalable transactions, while still maintaining some level of security and integrity.
Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) is an agency of the United States Department of the Treasury that enforces economic sanctions and trade embargoes. In the context of crypto, it regulates and imposes restrictions on cryptocurrency transactions involving individuals, entities, or countries on its sanctions list.
Off-Ledger Off-Ledger refers to transactions or activities that occur outside of a blockchain or distributed ledger system. It typically involves the use of traditional financial systems or intermediaries, rather than being recorded directly on the blockchain.
On-Chain On-Chain refers to activities or transactions that are recorded directly on a blockchain or distributed ledger. It involves interacting with the blockchain’s smart contracts, validating transactions, and maintaining a transparent and immutable record of all activities.
On-Chain Governance On-chain governance refers to the decentralized decision-making process within a blockchain network, where participants use the native cryptocurrency and smart contracts to propose and vote on protocol changes, upgrades, and other important decisions. It allows stakeholders to actively participate in shaping the direction and governance of the blockchain network.
One Cancels the Other (OCO) Order A One Cancels the Other (OCO) order is a type of trading order where the execution of one order automatically cancels another order. It allows traders to set both a stop-loss order and a take-profit order simultaneously, ensuring that if one order is executed, the other is automatically canceled, helping manage risk and maximize potential gains in crypto trading.
Open Source Open source refers to software or projects that have their source code freely available for anyone to view, modify, and distribute. In the context of crypto, open source often relates to blockchain platforms, wallets, and other tools, allowing transparency, collaboration, and community-driven development.
Open/Close In the context of trading, “open” refers to the start of a trading session or the initiation of a trade, while “close” refers to the end of a trading session or the completion of a trade. These terms are commonly used to indicate the beginning and end of trading activities in cryptocurrency markets.
OpenXR Open XR refers to an open and royalty-free standard for creating virtual and augmented reality experiences. It aims to provide interoperability and compatibility across various devices and platforms, enabling developers to build immersive experiences that can be accessed by a wide range of users. While Open XR is not directly related to cryptocurrencies, it is a technology that can enhance the user experience in crypto-related applications and platforms.
Option An option is a contract that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price on or before a specific date. The underlying asset can be a stock, a commodity, a currency, or even an index.
Options Market The options market is a financial market where traders can buy and sell contracts that give them the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price and time. These contracts are known as options.
Oracle An oracle in the context of cryptocurrency refers to a trusted external source of data or information that provides real-world data to smart contracts on the blockchain. Oracles act as bridges between the blockchain and the outside world, allowing smart contracts to access and interact with real-time data or events.
Orchid Orchid is a decentralized VPN (Virtual Private Network) that utilizes blockchain technology to create a secure and private internet connection. It allows users to browse the web anonymously and securely by routing their traffic through a network of decentralized nodes, enhancing privacy and censorship resistance.
Orphan In the context of cryptocurrency, an orphan refers to a block that is valid and mined but is not included in the main blockchain. Orphan blocks occur when two miners solve a block at approximately the same time, leading to temporary forks in the blockchain. The orphan block that is not incorporated into the main chain is considered an orphan.
OTC Broker An OTC (Over-The-Counter) broker is a professional or platform that facilitates direct trading between buyers and sellers without the involvement of a traditional exchange. OTC brokers provide services for large volume trades and offer liquidity for cryptocurrencies outside of the regular exchange markets.


P2E See “Play-to-Earn”
P2P See “Peer to Peer (P2P)”
Paper Hands The term “paper hands” refers to individuals who have a weak or easily influenced mentality when it comes to investing. It is usually used to describe those who quickly sell their investments or assets at the first sign of a price decline or negative market sentiment.
Paper Wallet A paper wallet is a physical document or printout that contains the public and private keys necessary to access and manage cryptocurrency holdings. It provides an offline storage option for securely storing and safeguarding digital assets.
Paxos Standard Paxos Standard (PAX) is a stablecoin that is pegged 1:1 to the US dollar, providing a stable and reliable digital currency for transactions within the crypto space. It offers transparency, security, and the ability to seamlessly transfer funds across different platforms and exchanges.
Payment Token A Payment Token is a type of cryptocurrency that is designed to be used as a means of payment for goods and services. They are fast, secure, and have low transaction fees, making them an attractive option to make transactions without the need for a central authority.
Peer to Peer (P2P) Peer-to-peer (P2P) refers to a decentralized network where participants can interact directly with each other without the need for intermediaries. It enables direct transactions, data sharing, and communication between individuals or entities, promoting decentralization and removing reliance on central authorities.
Peercoin Peercoin is a cryptocurrency that utilizes a combination of proof-of-stake and proof-of-work mechanisms to secure its network and validate transactions. It aims to provide energy-efficient and sustainable blockchain operations while promoting a fair distribution of coins through its unique consensus algorithm.
Pending Pending refers to a state where a transaction has been initiated but is still awaiting confirmation or approval on the blockchain network. During this time, the transaction is being processed and verified by network participants, and until it is confirmed, the status remains as “Pending.”
Permissioned Permissioned refers to a blockchain or network that requires explicit permission or authorization to join and participate. It typically involves a centralized authority or governing body that grants access to participants, ensuring controlled and regulated interactions within the network.
Permissioned Ledger A permissioned ledger is a type of blockchain where access and participation in the network are restricted to authorized entities. Unlike public blockchains, permissioned ledgers are governed by a set of rules and permissions defined by a central authority or consortium, enabling greater control and privacy in transactions.
Permissionless Permissionless refers to a blockchain or network that allows anyone to join and participate without needing explicit permission. It operates in a decentralized manner, where users have equal access and can interact freely without the need for intermediaries or central authorities.
Permissions Permissions refers to the access rights and restrictions granted to individuals or entities within a blockchain network. It determines who can perform specific actions such as validating transactions, participating in governance, or accessing certain functionalities based on predefined rules and roles.
Pizza In the crypto world, ‘Pizza’ refers to a significant event in Bitcoin’s history when someone famously purchased two pizzas with 10,000 bitcoins (around $40 back then) in 2010. This transaction is often cited as an example of how early bitcoin adopters could not have predicted the significant increase in its value over time.
Platform A platform is a digital infrastructure or software that enables the creation, execution, and management of decentralized applications (DApps), smart contracts, and other crypto-related services. It serves as a foundation for developers and users to interact with blockchain technology and build innovative solutions.
Play-to-Earn (Play2Earn, P2E) A business model for the gaming industry where the players are enticied to play the game by being awarded in-game rewards that can commonly be converted into real-world assets or services
PND PND stands for “Pump and Dump,” which refers to a manipulative practice where individuals or groups artificially inflate the price of a cryptocurrency through coordinated buying (“pumping”) and then sell their holdings at the elevated price (“dumping”), often leading to significant losses for unsuspecting investors. It is important to note that engaging in pump and dump schemes is illegal and unethical.
Polymath Polymath is a blockchain-based platform that facilitates the creation and issuance of security tokens. It enables businesses to tokenize their assets and comply with regulatory requirements, allowing for more efficient and accessible investment opportunities in the crypto space.
Ponzi Scheme Ponzi schemes are fraudulent schemes where a fraudster will generally pose as an investment manager and offer potential investors incredibly high return rates, in order to lure them in. However, the organiser of the scheme will not put the money into any type of investment but will pay off previous investors with the incoming funds from later investors. In a sense, these schemes merely transfer funds from one perosn to anotehr, while the organiser skims off the top. Some famous examples of such schemes are Brnard Madoff’s scheme and Charlie Ponzi’s scheme.
POS POS stands for Proof of Stake, which is a type of consensus mechanism used in blockchain technology. In POS, validators are chosen to create new blocks and validate transactions based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold and “stake” as collateral. The more cryptocurrency a validator holds and stakes, the higher their chances of being chosen to validate transactions and create new blocks.
POW POW stands for Proof of Work, which is a consensus algorithm used in many blockchain-based cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. The basic idea behind Proof of Work is to provide a way to verify transactions on the blockchain while also preventing fraudulent or malicious activity. It works by requiring miners to solve complex mathematical puzzles in order to validate a new block of transactions. This process requires a significant amount of computational power, which serves as a barrier to entry for potential attackers who might attempt to manipulate the blockchain.
Power Ledger Power Ledger is a blockchain-based platform that aims to disrupt the energy sector by enabling peer-to-peer energy trading and tracking renewable energy generation. It allows individuals and businesses to trade electricity directly, reducing costs and promoting renewable energy adoption.
Pre-Mine A pre-mine is when a certain amount of the total supply of a cryptocurrency is created or mined by the developers or creators of the cryptocurrency before it becomes publicly available. This is done to ensure that the developers’ wallets are well funded and that there is liquidity on the market at the time of launch.
Prepaid Access Prepaid Access refers to a payment method in the crypto industry where users can load funds onto a specific account or card in advance, allowing them to make purchases or transactions using those prepaid funds. It offers convenience and flexibility for individuals to manage their crypto holdings and engage in transactions without directly accessing their bank accounts.
Pre-Sale A Pre-Sale in the context of crypto refers to a phase prior to the public launch of a cryptocurrency or token, where a limited number of units are made available to early investors or participants at a discounted price. It allows these individuals to acquire the tokens before they become available to the general public during the public sale or initial exchange offering (IEO).
Priority Gas Auction (PGA) A Priority Gas Auction (PGA) is a concept within the Ethereum blockchain network that allows users to have their transactions processed faster by paying a higher fee. Gas refers to the unit of currency used to measure the computational effort required for transaction processing on the Ethereum network.
Privacy Privacy in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the ability to keep one’s transactions and personal information confidential and secure. It allows individuals to maintain anonymity and protect their financial privacy while engaging in crypto transactions.
Privacy Coin A Privacy Coin is a type of cryptocurrency designed to provide enhanced privacy and anonymity for its users. It utilizes advanced cryptographic techniques to conceal transaction details and user identities, offering greater confidentiality compared to other cryptocurrencies.
Private Address A Private Address is a unique alphanumeric string that serves as the destination for receiving funds. It is generated using cryptographic techniques and should be kept confidential to maintain the security and ownership of the associated crypto assets.
Private Blockchain A private blockchain is a type of blockchain network that is limited to a specific group of participants who are granted access to the network. This type of blockchain is often used by enterprises or organizations that require a high degree of control over the network and the ability to restrict access to certain participants.
Private Key A privacy coin is a type of cryptocurrency that utilizes advanced encryption techniques and protocols to protect the privacy and anonymity of its users. Unlike traditional cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, which have a transparent and public transaction ledger, privacy coins offer enhanced privacy features, making it difficult to trace transactions and identify users.
Private Sale A Private Sale refers to the initial sale of digital tokens or coins to a select group of individuals or institutions before they are made available to the public. It is typically conducted to raise funds for a project or startup and offers early investors the opportunity to acquire tokens at a discounted price.
Probably Nothing The phrase “probably nothing” is often used in the crypto community to downplay a potential issue or event, suggesting that it may not be significant or have a major impact on the cryptocurrency market. It signifies a dismissive attitude towards the situation at hand.
Profile Picture NFT (PFP NFT) A Profile Picture NFT (PFP NFT) refers to a non-fungible token that represents a unique digital artwork or image used as a profile picture or avatar in online platforms or social media. It allows individuals to showcase their ownership and authenticity of the image through blockchain technology. For example, Twitter users have the ability to showcase their ownership of Profile Picture NFTs, such as CryptoPunks, by setting them as their profile pictures, which are represented as hexagonal images.
Proof of Activity Proof of Activity is a consensus algorithm that combines Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) mechanisms, where participants validate transactions based on their mining and holding activities, ensuring both security and stakeholder involvement in the cryptocurrency network.
Proof of Authority (PoA) Proof of Authority (PoA) is a consensus algorithm where validators are selected based on their identity or reputation, allowing them to create and validate new blocks in the blockchain, ensuring fast transaction processing and network efficiency without the need for extensive computational power or mining rewards.
Proof of Burn (PoB) Proof of Burn (PoB) is a consensus algorithm where participants demonstrate their commitment to the network by permanently destroying or “burning” a certain amount of cryptocurrency, reducing the overall supply, as a way to earn the right to validate transactions and secure the blockchain.
Proof of Coverage (PoC) Proof of Coverage (PoC) is a consensus mechanism used in decentralized networks to ensure that a certain area or geographical region is adequately covered by network nodes. It verifies that network participants are physically present and providing the intended coverage, promoting trust and security within the network.
Proof of Developer Proof of Developer refers to a concept in which the reputation, expertise, or contributions of developers or development teams are considered as a measure of trust and reliability in a cryptocurrency project or blockchain ecosystem. It emphasizes the importance of the development team’s credibility and track record in determining the value and potential of a crypto project.
Proof of Reserves (PoR) Proof of Reserves (PoR) is a cryptographic technique used by cryptocurrency exchanges and custodians to provide verifiable proof that they possess the assets they claim to hold. It enhances transparency and ensures that the entity maintains sufficient reserves to cover customer deposits.
Proof of Stake (POS) A consensus mechanism for the creation of new blocks on the blockchain where the validator has to stake (lock up) a certain amount of a crypto-asset as collateral in order to become the validator of that particular block
Proof of Work (POW) A consensum mechanism for the creation of new blocks on the blockchain where validators (i.e. minders) use computing power to solve complex mathematical problems in order to be the first ones to solve the problems and be rewarded with a validation fee
Protocol A Protocol refers to a set of rules and guidelines that govern the behavior and interactions of participants in a blockchain network. It defines how transactions are validated, data is stored, and consensus is reached, ensuring the security and functionality of the crypto ecosystem.
Pseudonym/Pseudonymity In the crypto context, a Pseudonym refers to a fictional or alternative name used by individuals to engage in cryptocurrency transactions or participate in blockchain networks without revealing their true identity, enhancing privacy and security.
Public Address A Public Address is a unique alphanumeric identifier used in cryptocurrencies to receive funds. It serves as a destination or target where others can send digital assets, similar to a bank account number/IBAN.
Public Blockchain A Public Blockchain is a decentralized and transparent digital ledger where transactions and data are publicly recorded and verified by a network of participants. It is an integral part of many cryptocurrencies, allowing for secure and trustless transactions without the need for intermediaries.
Public Key A Public Key is a cryptographic key that is shared openly and used for encrypting data or verifying digital signatures. It is paired with a private key and forms the basis of public-key cryptography, enabling secure communication and transactions in the crypto world.
Public Sale A Public Sale refers to the process of offering cryptocurrency tokens or coins to the general public through a sale or initial coin offering (ICO). It allows anyone interested in the project to participate and purchase tokens, often at a predetermined price or through a crowdfunding mechanism.
Publishing Node Publishing Node refers to a participant in a blockchain network that validates and broadcasts new transactions or blocks to the network. It helps maintain the integrity and transparency of the blockchain by ensuring the timely dissemination of information to all network participants.
pump & dump Pump and Dump (PND) is a type of investment fraud that involves artificially inflating the price of an asset through deceptive and manipulative tactics, and then selling off that asset at a profit before the price falls. This scheme typically involves a group of people working together to promote the asset, often using false or misleading information and hype to trick other investors into buying in. Once the price has been pumped up, the group will then rapidly sell their own holdings, causing the price to crash and leaving other investors holding a worthless asset. PND is illegal and can result in serious consequences for those involved.
Pump and Dump (PND) Pump and Dump (PND) is a type of investment fraud that involves artificially inflating the price of an asset through deceptive and manipulative tactics, and then selling off that asset at a profit before the price falls. This scheme typically involves a group of people working together to promote the asset, often using false or misleading information and hype to trick other investors into buying in. Once the price has been pumped up, the group will then rapidly sell their own holdings, causing the price to crash and leaving other investors holding a worthless asset. PND is illegal and can result in serious consequences for those involved.
Pumping Pumping refers to the rapid and significant increase in the price of a particular cryptocurrency, often driven by coordinated buying and hype, leading to potential volatility and speculative trading activities.


QR Code QR Code stands for “Quick Response code” and is a two-dimensional barcode that can be scanned by a smartphone or other devices to quickly access information, links, or perform specific actions.
Qtum Qtum is a decentralized blockchain platform that combines the best features of Bitcoin’s security and Ethereum’s smart contract functionality, enabling developers to build and deploy decentralized applications (dApps) and execute smart contracts in a secure and efficient manner.
Quant In the context of cryptocurrency, a “Quant” refers to a quantitative analyst or researcher who applies mathematical and statistical models to analyze market data and develop trading strategies. Quants use data-driven approaches to make informed investment decisions in the crypto market.
Quantitative Easing Quantitative easing (QE) is a monetary policy that central banks use to stimulate economic growth by increasing the supply of money in the economy. This is achieved through the purchase of government securities or other financial assets from commercial banks and other financial institutions. By doing so, the central bank injects cash into the banking system, which lowers the cost of borrowing and encourages lending and investment.
Quantitative Tightening Quantitative tightening (QT) refers to a monetary policy tool used by central banks to reduce the amount of money in circulation by selling securities or raising interest rates. In contrast to quantitative easing (QE), which involves a central bank purchasing securities to increase the money supply and stimulate the economy, QT aims to control inflation by reducing the money supply and making it more expensive to borrow money. The goal of QT is to achieve price stability and prevent the economy from overheating. The Federal Reserve in the United States used QT from 2017 to 2019 to gradually reduce its balance sheet following a period of QE after the 2008 financial crisis.
Quantstamp Quantstamp is a blockchain-based platform that provides automated auditing and security services to ensure the integrity and reliability of smart contracts in the crypto industry. It helps identify vulnerabilities and potential risks in smart contract code, contributing to increased security and trust within the crypto ecosystem.
Quantum-Proof Quantum-Proof refers to cryptographic algorithms or systems that are resistant to attacks from quantum computers. These algorithms are designed to protect sensitive data and transactions in the future, even with the potential advancements in quantum computing technology.


Race Attack A Race Attack is a type of attack in which an attacker attempts to manipulate a cryptocurrency network by creating two different transactions with the same funds – one transaction with higher transaction fees and the other with lower transaction fees – and then try to get the transactions validated by the network. The aim of the attack is to get the transaction with the higher transaction fee validated by nodes in the network, while the node is still processing the transaction with the lower transaction fee. If successful, the attacker can essentially double-spend the same funds, which can have serious financial consequences for the network.
Raiden Network The Raiden Network is a layer 2 scaling solution built on top of the Ethereum blockchain that aims to improve transaction scalability and speed by enabling off-chain, low-cost, and near-instantaneous transfers of Ethereum-based tokens.
Rank Rank refers to the position or relative standing of a cryptocurrency or blockchain project in terms of market capitalization, popularity, or other factors used to evaluate its performance and visibility within the crypto industry.
Ransomware Ransomware is a type of malicious software that encrypts a victim’s files or locks their computer, rendering it inaccessible. The attacker demands a ransom payment, often in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, in exchange for restoring access to the encrypted data or unlocking the system.
Real World Assets (RWAs) Real World Assets (RWAs) refer to tangible or intangible assets that exist outside the digital realm, such as real estate, commodities, or intellectual property. In the context of crypto, RWAs can be tokenized or represented digitally on a blockchain, enabling easier transfer, fractional ownership, and increased liquidity of these assets.
Realverse Realverse refers to a hypothetical concept where virtual and real-world experiences seamlessly blend together, facilitated by blockchain technology and digital assets. It implies the integration of virtual reality, augmented reality, and blockchain to create immersive and interactive experiences that bridge the gap between the digital and physical realms.
Regulation Regulation refers to the rules and guidelines set by governments or regulatory authorities to govern and control the operation, use, and trading of cryptocurrencies. These regulations aim to provide a framework for protecting investors, preventing fraud, ensuring market stability, and fostering the growth of the crypto industry while maintaining compliance with legal and financial requirements.
Regulation A (Reg A) Regulation A (Reg A) is a provision in the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that allows smaller companies to raise up to $50 million in capital in a 12-month period through a simplified registration process. This regulation has two tiers: Tier 1 allows companies to raise up to $20 million in a 12-month period, while Tier 2 allows companies to raise up to $50 million in a 12-month period. Reg A+ also allows for companies to publicly advertise their securities offerings, which was previously prohibited under the original Regulation A.
Regulation A+ (Reg A+) Regulation A+ (Reg A+) is a provision of the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which allows small businesses to offer and sell securities to the public without having to register with the SEC. The regulation has two tiers: Tier 1 allows companies to offer up to $20 million in securities within a 12-month period, while Tier 2 allows companies to offer up to $50 million in securities within a 12-month period. Both tiers have additional regulatory requirements, including disclosure and reporting obligations, to protect investors. Reg A+ was introduced in 2015 as part of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act and is intended to make it easier for small businesses to raise capital through securities offerings.
Regulation CF (Reg CF) Regulation CF, also known as Regulation Crowdfunding, is a regulation that allows small businesses and startups in the United States to raise funds from both accredited and non-accredited investors through online crowdfunding platforms. It was implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 2016 as part of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act. Under Reg CF, companies can raise up to $5 million in a 12-month period by issuing securities, such as stocks or bonds, to investors who contribute funding. This regulation creates new investment opportunities for investors and helps small companies access capital to grow their businesses.
Regulation D (Reg D) Regulation D (Reg D) is a federal regulation that outlines certain exemptions from registration requirements for securities offerings made in the United States. Essentially, Reg D establishes rules that allow companies to raise capital from investors without having to go through the expensive and time-consuming process of registering their securities with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). There are different provisions within Reg D that allow for different types of private placements of securities, and companies must comply with these provisions in order to qualify for the exemption from SEC registration.
Regulation S (Reg S) Regulation S (Reg S) is a set of rules established by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that governs the offer and sale of securities outside of the United States.
Rekt (wrecked) The term “rekt” or “wrecked” is used to describe a situation where an investor or trader has suffered significant losses or has been severely impacted by a negative market movement. It is often used in a lighthearted or humorous manner to convey the idea of someone being financially “ruined” or “destroyed” due to poor investment decisions or unfavorable market conditions.
Relative Strength Index (RSI) The relative strength index (RSI) is a technical indicator that is used to measure the momentum of an asset’s price movement. The RSI compares the average gain and average loss of an asset’s price over a specific period of time, usually 14 days, and provides a value between 0 and 100. A reading above 70 is considered overbought, suggesting that the asset may be due for a price correction, while a reading below 30 is considered oversold, suggesting that the asset may be due for a price increase.
Ren Ren is a decentralized protocol that enables the transfer of digital assets across different blockchain networks. It aims to provide interoperability and liquidity by allowing users to move assets between chains, promoting a seamless and efficient crypto ecosystem.
Replicated Ledger A replicated ledger is a type of distributed ledger technology where multiple copies of the same ledger are maintained and synchronized across multiple nodes in a network. Each node in the network has its own copy of the ledger, but all copies are updated to reflect the same transactions and state changes.
Reserve Rights Reserve Rights is a cryptocurrency that aims to provide a stable, decentralized, and scalable form of digital money. It is designed to maintain its value relative to a stable asset, making it suitable for transactions and as a store of value in the crypto space.
Resistance Resistance refers to a price level at which an asset’s upward movement is expected to face selling pressure, potentially hindering further price increases. It is a term used to analyze and predict market trends and levels of support and resistance.
Reverse Indicator In the context of crypto, a “reverse indicator” refers to a phenomenon where an event or market behavior that is traditionally seen as a signal for a certain outcome or trend actually results in the opposite outcome or trend in the crypto market. It highlights the unpredictability and unique dynamics of the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Reward System Reward System refers to a mechanism or protocol that incentivizes participants in a blockchain network by providing rewards, typically in the form of cryptocurrency tokens, for their contributions and efforts. These rewards can be given for activities such as mining, staking, validating transactions, or participating in governance.
Ring Signature A ring signature is a digital signature scheme in which a group of signers is created, and any member of that group can sign a message on behalf of the group without revealing their identities. The signature identifies that the message was signed by a member of the group but does not reveal which member it was. This is in contrast to traditional digital signatures, where the identity of the signer is known to all parties. Ring signatures are commonly used in privacy-oriented cryptocurrencies to help ensure anonymous transactions.
Ripple Ripple is both a digital payment protocol and a cryptocurrency known as XRP. It aims to enable fast, low-cost international money transfers and facilitate seamless transactions between different fiat currencies, cryptocurrencies, and other digital assets.
Roadmap A “roadmap” refers to a strategic plan or timeline that outlines the development, milestones, and future goals of a cryptocurrency project or blockchain platform. It provides a roadmap of planned features, upgrades, and developments to guide the project’s growth and inform the community about its future direction.
Round Robin Consensus Model The Round Robin consensus model is a type of consensus algorithm used in distributed systems. It is a process in which each node in a network takes turns proposing an update to the system, and gets feedback from the other nodes before the update is committed. This algorithm ensures that all nodes in the network have an equal opportunity to propose updates and no single node dominates the process. The use of a round robin approach also prevents any one node from being overloaded with processing tasks.
Royalties Royalties refer to the fees or payments that content creators or owners receive for the use or distribution of their digital assets, such as NFTs or copyrighted materials, on blockchain platforms. These royalties are often automatically enforced and paid through smart contracts, providing a transparent and immutable way to manage intellectual property rights in the crypto space.
Rug Pull A rug pull is a fraudulent practice conducted by some cryptocurrency projects in which the creators of the project suddenly abandon the project and run away with all of the investors’ funds. This often happens in smaller projects, where the creators have control over the trading of the tokens. The creators will convince investors to buy into the project and once sufficient funds have been raised, they will delete the project’s social media accounts, close down websites, and disappear with all of the investment funds.


SAFU SAFU stands for “Secure Asset Fund for Users” and is a term used in the crypto community to describe a reserve fund set up by certain cryptocurrency exchanges or platforms to protect users’ funds in the event of a security breach or hack. It signifies the commitment to prioritize the security and protection of users’ assets in the crypto space.
Salt Salt is a cryptocurrency lending platform that allows individuals to use their crypto assets as collateral to obtain loans in traditional fiat currencies. It offers an alternative way to access liquidity without needing to sell one’s crypto holdings, thus enabling users to retain ownership of their digital assets while still accessing the benefits of borrowing.
Satoshi (Sat) A satoshi (sat) is the smallest unit of Bitcoin, representing one hundred millionth of a Bitcoin (0.00000001 BTC). It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin, and is used to measure and transact in tiny fractions of the cryptocurrency.
Satoshi Nakamoto Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym used by the individual or group who invented bitcoin. There have been numerous unsuccessful attempts to find the identity of the founder of bitcoin.
Scalability Scalability refers to the ability of a blockchain or cryptocurrency network to handle a growing number of transactions or users without compromising its performance, speed, or efficiency. It addresses the challenge of maintaining network effectiveness as the network expands.
Salping Scalping refers to a trading strategy where traders aim to profit from small price fluctuations in a short period. It involves quickly buying and selling cryptocurrencies to take advantage of price volatility and make frequent, small gains.
Scammers Scammers refers to individuals or groups who engage in fraudulent activities within the crypto space. They aim to deceive and defraud unsuspecting individuals by using various schemes such as fake investment opportunities, phishing scams, or Ponzi schemes. It is important for crypto users to be cautious and vigilant to avoid falling victim to scammers and protect their assets.
Scrypt Scrypt is a cryptographic algorithm used in some cryptocurrencies, such as Litecoin, for securing and verifying transactions. It is designed to be resistant to mining with specialized hardware (ASICs) and promotes more widespread participation by utilizing memory-intensive computations.
Second-Layer Solutions Second-Layer Solutions are additional protocols or systems built on top of a blockchain to address scalability and performance issues. They aim to enhance transaction speed and reduce fees by processing transactions off the main blockchain while leveraging its security features.
Secure Hash Algorithm 256 (SHA-256) SHA-256 (Secure Hash Algorithm 256-bit) is a cryptographic hash function commonly used in blockchain technology. It takes an input and produces a fixed-size output of 256 bits, ensuring data integrity and security by generating a unique hash that is extremely difficult to reverse-engineer or tamper with.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a U.S. government agency that regulates and enforces laws related to securities and investments. Its role is to protect investors, maintain fair markets.
Security Token A security token is a type of digital token that represents ownership in a real-world asset, such as equity or debt in a company or real estate. They are subject to securities regulations and offer investors with legal rights and financial benefits, including dividends and profit sharing.
Security Token Offering (STO) A Security Token Offering (STO) is a type of fundraising campaign that allows companies to raise funds by issuing tokens that are backed by real-world assets or financial instruments, such as stocks or bonds. STOs are subject to securities laws and regulations in different countries, making them a more regulated alternative to initial coin offerings (ICOs).
Seed Phrase A seed phrase is a series of words that serves as a master key to access and recover a cryptocurrency wallet. It is typically generated during wallet setup and acts as a backup in case the original wallet is lost or inaccessible.
seems legit The phrase “seems legit” is commonly used in an ironically way in the crypto community to express skepticism or doubt about the authenticity or credibility of a project, platform, or investment opportunity in the crypto space. It suggests a need for further investigation or caution before engaging with or trusting the subject in question.
Segregated Witness (SegWit) Segregated Witness (SegWit) is a protocol upgrade implemented in some cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, to increase transaction capacity and improve scalability by separating transaction signatures from transaction data, resulting in more efficient use of block space and reducing transaction fees.
Self-Custody Self-custody refers to the practice of individuals having full control and responsibility over their own cryptocurrency assets, typically by holding private keys or using non-custodial wallets. It allows users to manage and secure their digital assets without relying on third-party intermediaries such as exchanges or custodial services.
Selfish Mining Selfish mining refers to a strategy in which a miner or group of miners deliberately withholds mined blocks from the network, aiming to gain a disproportionate advantage over other miners. This behavior disrupts the fair distribution of mining rewards and undermines the security and decentralization of the blockchain network.
Sell Wall A circumstance when a sizable limit order has been put in place to sell when a cryptocurrency hits a specific value
Settlement “Settlement” stands for the discharge of obligations and the concurrent transfer of financial risks from one party to another. In the context of crypto-assets and -currency transactions, the principle of “settlement finality” is often discussed, which means that the performance made by one party cannot be revoked or challenged by way of insolvency avoidance rights or other judicial interventions.
Sh*tcoin Shitcoin is a slang term used to refer to cryptocurrencies that are considered to be of low quality, lacking genuine value, or prone to scams. It is often used to describe cryptocurrencies with questionable credibility, unreliable development teams, or no real-world utility.
SHA-256 SHA-256 (Secure Hash Algorithm 256-bit) is a cryptographic hash function commonly used in blockchain technology. It takes an input and produces a fixed-size output of 256 bits, ensuring data integrity and security by generating a unique hash that is extremely difficult to reverse-engineer or tamper with.
Sharding Sharding is a technique used in blockchain technology to improve scalability and increase transaction processing speed. It involves dividing the network into smaller groups, or “shards,” that can process transactions independently, allowing for parallel processing and reducing the burden on the entire network.
Shilling Shilling refers to the act of promoting or endorsing a cryptocurrency or project for personal gain, typically through misleading or exaggerated claims. It is often done to manipulate market prices or attract more investors, and it is considered unethical and potentially harmful to the integrity of the crypto industry.
Short Squeeze A Short Squeeze refers to a situation in the crypto market where the price of a digital asset rapidly increases, causing traders who have short positions (betting on a price decline) to close their positions by buying the asset, which further drives the price up. It often occurs when there is a scarcity of supply, high demand, or positive market sentiment, leading to potential profit opportunities for long-term holders and increased volatility in the crypto market.
Short/Short Position A short position refers to a situation in which an investor or trader borrows an asset, such as a stock, from a broker and sells it with the expectation that ist price will decline, allowing them to buy it back at a lower price and profit from the difference.
Side Chain A side chain is a separate blockchain that is attached to the main blockchain, but operates independently from it. Side chains are used to enable faster and more flexible transactions, as well as to implement custom features and applications that may not be possible on the main blockchain. Transactions between the main chain and the side chain are facilitated through smart contracts, which ensure that the assets are securely transferred and accounted for on both chains.
Simple Agreement for Future Tokens (SAFT) A Simple Agreement for Future Tokens (SAFT) is a legal document that outlines an agreement between investors and a blockchain project, providing the right to receive tokens in the future once they are generated and made available. It enables early-stage funding for crypto projects while complying with securities regulations and offering investors a potential stake in the project’s future success.
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) is a technique used by lightweight crypto wallets to quickly check the validity of transactions without downloading the entire blockchain. It allows users to securely manage their transactions using less storage and processing power, making crypto payments easier and faster.
Slashing Slashing refers to a penalty mechanism in blockchain networks where validators or stakers can lose a portion of their cryptocurrency holdings or network privileges for malicious or fraudulent behavior. It helps maintain the security and integrity of the blockchain by discouraging validators from acting against the network’s rules and consensus mechanisms.
Smart Arbitral Award A “Smart Arbitral Award” is issued in code and self-executing by relying on the same mechanism as a “Smart Contract”.
Smart Contract According to Szabo’s initial definition, a “Smart Contract” is a “computerised transaction protocol that executes the terms of a contract”. The quintessential idea is that most transactions are based on conditional logic (if event X happens, Y is the consequence) and that those conditions and their respective consequences may be transposed into code, enabling automated enforcement.
Smart Contract Platform A smart contract platform is a blockchain-based system that enables the creation and execution of self-executing contracts. These contracts automatically enforce the terms and conditions defined within them, providing transparency, security, and eliminating the need for intermediaries in various industries, including finance, supply chain, and real estate.
Smart Derivative “Smart Derivatives” rely on the same logic as “Smart Contracts” and auto-execute the computed payment obligations. Hence, no enforcement is necessary. The International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) is already conducting extensive research on this nascent topic with guidelines on how DLT-technology may be utilized for the derivatives market.
Smart Economy A smart economy refers to an economic system that leverages blockchain technology and smart contracts to enhance efficiency, transparency, and automation of financial transactions and other business operations. It involves the integration of cryptocurrencies, decentralized applications (dApps), and digital assets to create a more efficient and inclusive economic ecosystem.
Smart Oracles Smart oracles, in the context of cryptocurrencies, refer to specialized software or protocols that act as intermediaries between blockchain platforms and real-world data sources. They provide reliable and verified external data to smart contracts, enabling them to interact with real-world events, such as market prices, weather conditions, or other relevant information, and trigger automated actions based on predefined conditions.
Smart Property Smart property refers to the concept of digitizing and tokenizing real-world assets, such as real estate or physical goods, using blockchain technology. By representing these assets as unique digital tokens on a blockchain, smart property enables secure and transparent ownership, transferability, and programmable functionality, revolutionizing the way assets are managed and traded.
Smart Wallet A smart wallet is a digital wallet that allows users to securely store, manage, and interact with their cryptocurrencies. It provides features such as private key management, transaction signing, and integration with decentralized applications (dApps), enabling users to conveniently access and control their crypto assets.
Soft Cap Soft Cap refers to the minimum funding goal set for a cryptocurrency project during an initial coin offering (ICO) or token sale. If the project fails to reach the soft cap, the funds are typically returned to the participants, and the project may not proceed as initially planned. It serves as a benchmark for the project’s viability and sustainability within the crypto industry.
Soft Fork A Soft Fork is a backward-compatible upgrade to a blockchain protocol that introduces new rules but still recognizes the old rules, allowing nodes that have not upgraded to continue participating in the network. It ensures the smooth evolution of the blockchain while maintaining compatibility with existing nodes and minimizing disruptions within the crypto ecosystem.
Solidity Solidity is a programming language used for writing smart contracts on blockchain platforms like Ethereum, allowing developers to define the rules and logic of decentralized applications (DApps) and create custom digital assets with built-in functionality.
SPAC SPAC, short for Special Purpose Acquisition Company, is a type of investment vehicle that raises funds through an initial public offering (IPO) to acquire or merge with an existing crypto-related company. It provides a way for investors to gain exposure to the crypto industry without directly investing in individual cryptocurrencies.
Spatial Computing Spatial Computing refers to a technology that combines the physical and digital worlds by using augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) to create interactive and immersive experiences. In the context of crypto, spatial computing can be utilized to enhance user interfaces, visualization of blockchain data, and immersive crypto-related applications.
Stablecoin A type of cryptocurrency designed to maintain a stable value by pegging its price to a specific asset, such as a fiat currency (e.g., USD) or a commodity. Stablecoins aim to reduce price volatility commonly associated with other cryptocurrencies
stacking sats the term “stacking sats” refers to the practice of accumulating or acquiring small amounts of Bitcoin (BTC) over time. The word “sats” is short for “satoshis,” which is the smallest unit of Bitcoin. By “stacking sats,” individuals aim to gradually increase their holdings of Bitcoin by buying small amounts regularly, regardless of the current price. This strategy is based on the belief that Bitcoin will appreciate in value over the long term.
Stake/Staking refers to the act of participating in a blockchain network’s consensus mechanism by locking or “staking” a certain amount of the native cryptocurrency as collateral. This process helps secure the network and validate transactions. In return for staking their coins and contributing to the network’s security, participants often receive rewards in the form of additional cryptocurrency tokens or transaction fees. Staking is commonly associated with Proof of Stake (PoS) and Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) consensus mechanisms, where token holders are incentivized to actively participate in the network’s governance and security.
Staking Staking refers to the process of holding and “staking” a cryptocurrency in a wallet to support the operations of a blockchain network. In return for staking, participants earn rewards or additional cryptocurrency, contributing to network security and consensus.
Stale Block Stale Block, also known as an orphan block, refers to a block that was successfully mined by a miner or validator but is not included in the longest valid chain due to the emergence of a competing block at the same height. Stale blocks occur when multiple miners or validators simultaneously discover valid blocks, causing temporary forks in the blockchain that are resolved when one chain becomes longer and the other blocks are discarded.
State Channel A State Channel is an off-chain mechanism in blockchain technology that facilitates faster and more efficient transactions by temporarily moving them away from the main blockchain, resulting in improved scalability and reduced costs within the crypto ecosystem.
Stop Order A stop order is a type of order placed by a trader to buy or sell a cryptocurrency once it reaches a specific price level. It is designed to limit potential losses or lock in profits by automatically executing the trade when the specified price is reached.
Stored Value Stored Value refers to a digital representation of monetary value that is securely stored and can be used for future transactions. In the context of cryptocurrencies, stored value typically refers to the balance of digital assets held in a crypto wallet, which can be used as a medium of exchange or investment within the crypto ecosystem.
SubDAO Sub DAO refers to a decentralized subset within a larger autonomous organization, enabling focused governance and management of specific functions or services within the crypto ecosystem.
Swap A Swap is a financial derivative contract between two parties to exchange cash flows or liabilites based on specified terms, often involving interest rates or currencies.
Sweep the Floor The purchasing by a single or a limited number of persons of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) at their lowest value (i.e. the floor value)
Swipe Swipe is a cryptocurrency wallet and debit card platform. It allows users to store, manage, and spend their cryptocurrencies in real-time through the Swipe mobile app. Swipe aims to provide a seamless and secure way for users to access and use their digital assets for everyday transactions, bridging the gap between traditional financial systems and cryptocurrencies. Additionally, Swipe offers various features such as cashback rewards, staking options, and cryptocurrency-to-fiat conversions.
Sybil Attack A Sybil attack is a type of network attack in which an attacker creates multiple fake identities or personas, known as Sybils, to deceive a network or system. By having control over multiple identities, the attacker can launch an attack with the goal of overwhelming or subverting the system.
Symbol Symbol refers to a unique identifier or code used to represent a specific cryptocurrency or digital asset, similar to ticker symbols in traditional finance, enabling easy identification and trading of different tokens on exchanges.
Syscoin Syscoin is a decentralized blockchain platform that provides a variety of services such as digital asset issuance, decentralized marketplace, and encrypted messaging. It is designed to enable secure and efficient peer-to-peer transactions and offer a wide range of possibilities for businesses and individuals. Syscoin aims to create a decentralized marketplace that allows participants to transact directly with each other, without the need for intermediaries. Additionally, Syscoin incorporates various features to enhance security, scalability, and privacy within its network.
Szabo Nicholas Szabo is a lawyer and computer scientist, who coined the term “smart contract” and – according to proliferating conspiracies – could be Bitcoin’s inventor Satoshi Nakamoto. Already in 1996, he published a paper on “Smart Contracts: Building Blocks for Digital Markets” which introduces the idea of using cryptography to automate contract enforcement. Furthermore, the term “Szabo” is used to refer to the smallest unit of a cryptocurrency, similar to how “cents” represent a fraction of a dollar. It signifies the indivisible and smallest denomination within the crypto ecosystem.


Taint Taint refers to the traceability of the origin and movement of cryptocurrency funds, particularly when they have been involved in illicit activities or are associated with suspicious addresses. It allows for the analysis and identification of potentially tainted funds within the crypto ecosystem, aiding in compliance and anti-money laundering (AML) efforts.
Tamper Evident Tamper Evident refers to a security feature that provides visible or detectable evidence of unauthorized access or tampering with a crypto-related object or system. It ensures the integrity and trustworthiness of cryptographic assets by making any tampering attempts readily identifiable.
Tamper Resistant Tamper Resistant refers to a security measure that makes it extremely difficult for unauthorized individuals to modify or alter a crypto-related object or system. It ensures the protection and integrity of cryptographic assets against tampering or unauthorized access, enhancing the overall security of the crypto ecosystem.
Tangle Tangle refers to a distributed ledger technology (DLT) used in cryptocurrencies like IOTA, where transactions are interconnected in a directed acyclic graph (DAG) structure instead of a traditional blockchain. The tangle allows for secure and feeless transactions, as each new transaction must validate two previous transactions, enhancing scalability and decentralization within the crypto ecosystem.
Technical Analysis (TA) Technical analysis is a method used to analyze financial markets such as stocks, currencies, and commodities. It involves examining past market data and price charts to identify trends and patterns that can help to predict future price movements. Technical analysts use various indicators such as moving averages, support and resistance levels, and trend lines to identify potential entry and exit points for trades.
Telepresence Telepresence refers to the use of virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality (AR) technologies to create a sense of being physically present in a remote location. In the context of crypto, telepresence can be utilized for virtual meetings, conferences, or immersive experiences within blockchain-based virtual worlds or metaverses.
TenX TenX was a Singapore-based company that aimed to make cryptocurrencies accessible for everyday transactions. They developed a payment card called the TenX card, which allowed users to use their cryptocurrencies for purchases at any merchant that accepted Visa or Mastercard. The TenX card would automatically convert the user’s chosen cryptocurrency into the local currency at the time of the purchase. However, as of January 2020, TenX has shifted its focus away from the payment card and is now focused on building their own blockchain and associated products.
Testnet Testnet refers to a separate blockchain network used by developers and users to experiment, test, and validate new features, smart contracts, or applications without using real cryptocurrencies or affecting the main network. It allows for risk-free testing and debugging before deploying on the live or mainnet.
Tether Tether is a type of cryptocurrency that acts as a stablecoin, which means its value is meant to be pegged to a specific fiat currency, usually the US dollar. It is designed to provide stability and allow for easier transfer of digital assets between different exchanges or platforms. Tether tokens are backed by reserves of the currency it is pegged to, and users can typically redeem their Tether tokens for the equivalent fiat currency at a 1:1 ratio. Tether is commonly used in the cryptocurrency market as a way to preserve value and facilitate trading without relying on traditional banking systems.
Tezos Tezos is a decentralized blockchain platform that enables the development and execution of smart contracts. It provides a secure and robust infrastructure for creating and deploying decentralized applications (dApps). Tezos uses a self-amending governance model, which means that the protocol can evolve and upgrade itself through on-chain voting by token holders. This enables the platform to adapt to changing needs and incorporate improvements without requiring a hard fork. Tezos also emphasizes security and formal verification, aiming to minimize the risks associated with smart contract coding errors.
TFR TFR stands for Tokenized Financial Rights and refers to the representation of traditional financial assets, such as stocks, bonds, or commodities, in the form of digital tokens on a blockchain. It enables the seamless transfer, ownership, and trading of these assets within the crypto ecosystem, providing increased liquidity and accessibility.
TFR (Regulation (EU) 2015/847) TFR stands for “Transfer of Funds Regulation” and refers to the European Union regulation on the transmission of funds information, which sets rules and procedures for the reporting and sharing of information related to electronic money transfers. It aims to prevent money laundering, terrorist financing, and other illicit activities in the crypto and financial sectors.
The Graph The Graph is a decentralized protocol that allows developers to efficiently query and index data from blockchain networks, such as Ethereum. It acts as an indexing and querying layer, enabling developers to quickly access and retrieve specific information from the blockchain. By using The Graph, developers can build applications that require real-time data, as well as perform complex queries on blockchain data easily and efficiently. It provides a more efficient and scalable way to interact with blockchain data, making it easier for developers to build decentralized applications (dApps) and services that rely on blockchain information.
Theta Token Theta Token is a cryptocurrency that operates on the Theta Network, which is a decentralized video streaming platform. The main purpose of Theta Token is to incentivize users to share their bandwidth and computational resources to improve the quality and efficiency of video streaming. By using Theta Tokens, users can earn rewards for their contributions to the network, and content creators can also receive tokens for their content. Additionally, Theta Token is used for governance and decision-making within the Theta Network ecosystem.
Think Long Term (TLT) Think Long Term (TLT) refers to the mindset of focusing on long-term investments and strategies, rather than short-term speculation, with the goal of maximizing returns and value over an extended period of time. It emphasizes the importance of patience and staying invested in crypto assets to potentially benefit from their long-term growth and development.
This Is Gentlemen The phrase “This is Gentlemen” is a popular meme in the crypto community that originated from a Bitcoin forum post. It is often used humorously to refer to a moment of excitement or anticipation in the cryptocurrency market or to express confidence in a positive outcome.
Ticker A Ticker is a unique symbol or abbreviation used to identify a specific cryptocurrency. Tickers are commonly used on exchanges, financial platforms, and news outlets to represent different digital assets, making it easier to track and reference them.
Timelock/Locktime A timelock or locktime refers to a feature that allows users to specify a future time or block height before which certain transactions cannot be spent or executed, adding an additional layer of security and control over funds.
Timestamp A timestamp refers to a unique identifier that represents the exact date and time when a particular event or transaction occurs, ensuring the chronological order and integrity of blockchain records.
tl;dr (too long; didn’t read) A catchphrase meant to indicate that the relevant text is too long to be read and that an appropriate summary should be provided
TLDR Too long; didn’t read – meant to indicate that the relevant text is too long to be read and that an appropriate summary should be provided
Token A token is a digital unit created on a blockchain platform. It typically represents an asset or a specific utility within a decentralized network. Tokens can be used for various purposes such as accessing services, participating in governance, or as a form of digital currency.
Token economy A token economy is a system or framework in which tokens are used as the primary medium of exchange within a particular ecosystem or community. These tokens can have various functions and purposes, such as representing a specific value, utility, or ownership rights. In a token economy, tokens can be earned, bought, sold, or exchanged for goods, services, or other assets within the ecosystem. They can also be used to incentivize certain behaviors or actions, as well as establish governance mechanisms within a decentralized network.
Token Generation Event (TGE) A Token Generation Event (TGE) refers to the process of creating and distributing tokens on a blockchain network, typically through an initial coin offering (ICO) or token sale, allowing participants to acquire and own these tokens as a form of digital assets or utility within the network.
Token Sale A token sale, also known as an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) or a token offering, is a crowdfunding method used by blockchain projects to raise funds. During a token sale, project tokens or digital assets are sold to participants in exchange for established cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, or sometimes fiat currencies.
Token Velocity Token Velocity refers to the rate at which a cryptocurrency is used or exchanged within a given period. It measures how quickly tokens circulate through transactions, and high token velocity may indicate a higher level of economic activity or speculation within the crypto ecosystem.
Tokenization Tokenization is the process of converting real-world assets, such as art or real estate, into digital tokens that can be stored and transferred on a blockchain. This enables fractional ownership, easier and faster trading, and increased liquidity of these assets.
Tokenless Ledger Tokenless Ledger refers to a distributed ledger technology (DLT) system that operates without the need for native tokens or cryptocurrencies. It focuses on recording and verifying transactions or data in a decentralized manner, but does not involve the issuance or use of specific tokens as a means of value transfer or incentivization within the network.
Tokenomics Tokenomics refers to the economic system and principles governing a cryptocurrency or token, including its distribution, supply, utility, and value dynamics, as well as the incentives and mechanisms designed to promote adoption, usage, and sustainability within the network.
Tor Tor, short for “The Onion Router,” is a decentralized network that allows users to browse the internet anonymously by routing their internet traffic through a series of encrypted nodes, protecting their privacy and providing them with increased security. Tor is often used in the crypto space to enhance the privacy and anonymity of cryptocurrency transactions and communications.
Total Value Locked (TVL) Total Locked Value (TLV) is a metric that represents the total value of assets locked in a particular blockchain protocol or decentralized application (dApp). TLV is an indicator of the level of demand for a particular protocol or dApp.
Transaction A transaction in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the transfer of digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies, from one party to another. It involves the exchange of ownership and is recorded on a blockchain, ensuring transparency, security, and immutability of the transaction data.
Transaction Fee Transaction Fee refers to a small amount of cryptocurrency paid by users as compensation to miners or validators for processing and verifying transactions on a blockchain network, incentivizing the secure and timely execution of transactions within the crypto ecosystem.
Transaction Fee Market A transaction fee market refers to the system where users of a blockchain network bid for the inclusion of their transactions in the next block by offering a certain fee. This market-based mechanism helps prioritize transactions based on their offered fees, ensuring timely processing and incentivizing miners to include transactions with higher fees.
Transaction Malleability Transaction malleability refers to the potential for the modification of a transaction’s unique identifier (hash) without changing its content or outcome. This vulnerability can impact certain cryptographic systems and requires measures to ensure the integrity and security of transactions.
Transaction Pool Transaction Pool, also known as a mempool, refers to the temporary storage space in a blockchain network where pending transactions are held before they are confirmed and added to a block. Miners or validators select transactions from the transaction pool to include in the next block, ensuring the smooth processing and validation of transactions within the crypto ecosystem.
Transparency Transparency in the context of crypto refers to the openness and visibility of transactional data and blockchain activities. It allows for public scrutiny and verification of transactions, ensuring trust and accountability within the decentralized ecosystem.
Transparent In the context of crypto, “transparent” refers to the quality of being easily observable or verifiable. It signifies the openness and accessibility of information within a blockchain network, allowing users to track and validate transactions, ensuring trust and integrity.
Travel Rule The Travel Rule is a regulatory requirement that mandates cryptocurrency exchanges and other virtual asset service providers to share customer information and transaction details with each other when transferring a certain threshold of funds, aimed at enhancing anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorism financing (CTF) efforts within the crypto industry.
Tron Tron is a blockchain-based decentralized platform that aims to create a global digital entertainment system. It provides a platform for content creators to directly connect with their audience without intermediaries. Tron aims to revolutionize the entertainment industry by enabling direct and transparent transactions between content creators and consumers using its native cryptocurrency, called TRX. The platform also supports the creation and distribution of decentralized applications (dApps) and smart contracts. Tron’s ultimate goal is to decentralize the internet and eliminate the control of media conglomerates over content distribution and monetization.
TrueUSD TrueUSD is a stablecoin, which means it is a type of cryptocurrency that is designed to maintain a stable value. TrueUSD is pegged to the value of the US dollar, with each token being backed by and redeemable for one US dollar. It is issued by the TrustToken platform and operates on the Ethereum blockchain. TrueUSD provides a way for individuals and businesses to transact in a digital currency that remains relatively stable, reducing the volatility commonly associated with other cryptocurrencies. It offers transparency and is designed to be easily auditable, ensuring that the backing of each TrueUSD token is always fully collateralized with US dollars.
Trustless Trustless refers to the characteristic of a decentralized system, like a blockchain, where participants can engage in transactions or interactions without the need to rely on trust in a central authority. Instead, the system operates based on predefined rules, cryptography, and consensus mechanisms, ensuring transparency, security, and verifiability in the crypto ecosystem.
Tumbler A tumbler, also known as a mixer, is a privacy-enhancing tool used in cryptocurrency transactions to obscure the trail of funds by combining and shuffling them with other users’ funds, making it difficult to trace the original source or destination of the funds. It helps enhance privacy and break the linkability of transactions.
Turing Complete Turing complete refers to a programming language or system that has the ability to perform any computation that can be done by a Turing machine, indicating its ability to handle complex computations and execute any algorithm. In the context of cryptocurrencies, Turing completeness is often associated with smart contract platforms like Ethereum, which enable the execution of decentralized applications (DApps) with complex logic and functionality.
Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) is a security measure that adds an extra layer of protection to online accounts by requiring users to provide two different forms of identification or verification, typically a password and a unique code generated by a separate device, to access their accounts. In the context of crypto, 2FA is often used to secure cryptocurrency wallets, exchanges, and other crypto-related platforms, enhancing the security of users’ digital assets.


Unconfirmed Transaction An unconfirmed transaction refers to a transaction that has been broadcasted to the network but has not yet been validated and added to a block. It resides in the transaction pool, waiting for miners or validators to select and include it in the next block for confirmation. Until confirmed, the transaction remains pending and subject to potential changes or reversals.
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) refers to the unspent amount of cryptocurrency resulting from a transaction, which serves as the input for future transactions. Each UTXO represents a specific amount of cryptocurrency tied to a unique address, providing the building blocks for subsequent transactions within the crypto ecosystem.
Utility Token A Utility Token is a type of cryptocurrency that is designed to have a specific use or function within a particular blockchain platform or network. Unlike other cryptocurrencies that may serve primarily as a store of value or medium of exchange, utility tokens are intended to provide access to certain products, services, or features within the platform they are associated with. These tokens can be used to interact with the platform, access exclusive content, participate in voting or governance processes, or even pay for goods and services offered by the platform or its partners. The value of utility tokens is derived from their utility or usefulness within the specific ecosystem they belong to.


Validation Validation refers to the process of verifying and confirming the accuracy and legitimacy of transactions on a blockchain network. It is a critical step in ensuring the integrity and security of the network. In most decentralized cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, validation is performed by a decentralized network of computers called nodes. These nodes compete to validate transactions by solving complex mathematical puzzles through a process known as mining. Once a block of transactions is successfully validated, it is added to the blockchain and becomes part of the permanent record.
Validator A validator is a participant in a blockchain network responsible for validating and verifying transactions and adding them to the blockchain. Validators play a crucial role in maintaining the security and integrity of the network by ensuring that transactions comply with the network’s rules and reaching consensus on the validity of new blocks.
Validity Proof A validity proof is the evidence or demonstration provided to verify the correctness and legitimacy of a transaction or data within a blockchain network. It ensures that transactions adhere to the predefined rules and protocols of the network, enhancing trust and security in the system.
Vampire Attack A vampire attack is a situation where a blockchain network or token drains liquidity and value from another existing network by incentivizing users to switch their assets. This aggressive tactic is often employed by new protocols to attract users and resources from established projects.
Vanity Address A Vanity Address is a custom-generated public key or address that is deliberately chosen to spell out a specific word or phrase. It is primarily used for aesthetic or personal branding purposes rather than for security or anonymity.
Vaporware Vaporwarerefers to a cryptocurrency project or token that is announced or promoted but never actually developed or delivered as promised, often leaving investors empty-handed. It can also refer to a project that lacks substance or has no real-world functionality.
VASP Virtual Asset Provider (VASP) refers to an entity or individual that offers services for the storage, exchange, or transfer of digital assets, including cryptocurrencies, facilitating the buying, selling, or management of virtual assets within the crypto ecosystem.
VeChain VeChain is a blockchain-based platform developed to improve supply chain management and business processes. It uses distributed ledger technology to securely track and verify the authenticity and quality of products throughout their lifecycle. VeChain enables businesses to store and access relevant information about their products on the blockchain, enhancing transparency and trust for consumers and reducing counterfeiting and fraud. Additionally, VeChain’s native token, VET, is used to facilitate transactions and incentivize participants on the network.
Vector76 Attack a type of double spend attack
Venture Capital Venture capital is a type of private investment that is typically provided to startups or early-stage companies with promising growth potential. Venture capitalists invest in these companies in exchange for an ownership stake in the business, with the goal of helping them grow and eventually achieve profitability. In addition to funding, venture capitalists often provide guidance and expertise to help these companies achieve their growth objectives.
Verge Verge is a privacy-focused cryptocurrency and blockchain platform. It aims to provide secure and anonymous transactions by using various privacy-centric technologies. Verge uses features such as Tor and I2P networks to hide users’ identities and IP addresses. It also offers fast transaction speeds and low fees. Verge strives to be a decentralized and community-driven project, with the goal of providing individuals with control over their financial privacy.
Veritaseum Veritaseum is a blockchain-based platform that aims to enable peer-to-peer capital markets without the need for intermediaries. It utilizes smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain to facilitate direct interactions between counterparties, allowing for the seamless exchange and management of assets. Veritaseum’s platform offers various financial services, including trading, peer-to-peer lending, and asset management, with the goal of increasing market efficiency and reducing costs.
View Key A view key is a cryptographic key used in some cryptocurrencies like Monero. It allows a user to grant another user limited access to their wallet without compromising the security of their funds. With a view key, the user who has been granted access can see the balance of the wallet and the transactions that have been made, but they cannot spend the funds or make any changes to the wallet.
Virgin Bitcoin A “virgin” bitcoin refers to a bitcoin that has not been transacted or spent before. It’s a term used to describe newly mined bitcoins or bitcoins that have not been used in any previous transactions.
Virtual Asset Service Provider (VASP) A private entity engaged in the provision of financial services with respect to virtual assets such as exchange services between virtual assets and fiat currencies, custodian wallet providers, and provision of financial services concerning the issuance and sale of virtual currencies
Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs) Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs) are decentralized protocols that utilize smart contracts to facilitate automated trading and liquidity provision in cryptocurrency markets. They enable users to trade and swap digital assets directly on the blockchain without the need for intermediaries, providing liquidity and enhancing market efficiency.
Virtual Currency Virtual currency is a type of digital currency that is created and managed using encryption techniques known as cryptography. It is not issued by a central authority and can be used as a medium of exchange for goods and services.
Virtual Reality (VR) Virtual Reality is a computer-generated simulation that immerses users in an interactive, artificial enviroment, providing a sense of presence and allowing them to explore and interact with the virtual world.
Volatile Market A volatile market refers to a market where prices experience significant and rapid fluctuations over a short period. In the context of cryptocurrencies, volatility is often associated with large price swings and unpredictable price movements.
Volatility Volatility refers to the rapid and significant price fluctuations experienced by cryptocurrencies. It indicates the degree of price variability and risk associated with an asset, reflecting its potential for both high gains and losses in a short period.


WAGBO (we are gonne be okay) WAGBO is an abbreviation for “We Are Gonna Be Okay.” While it may be used in various contexts, it can be applied in the crypto industry to express optimism or reassurance during market fluctuations or uncertain times.
WAGMI (we are gonna make it) WAGMI is an acronym that stands for “We Are Going to Make It”. It has become a popular phrase in the crypto community, often used to express optimism and confidence in the future success of a particular cryptocurrency or the entire market as a whole. The phrase is often used on social media platforms, online forums, and chat groups to encourage and uplift fellow crypto investors.
Wallet A wallet is a digital tool or software application that enables users to securely store, manage, and interact with their cryptocurrency holdings. It provides access to view balances, send or receive transactions, and engage with the crypto ecosystem.
Wallet (Hardware) A hardware wallet is a physical device specifically designed to securely store cryptocurrency private keys offline, providing an extra layer of protection against potential online threats, such as hacking or malware.
Wallet (Software) A software wallet, also known as a digital wallet or e-wallet, is an application or software program that enables users to securely store, manage, and interact with their cryptocurrencies on electronic devices such as computers or smartphones, allowing for convenient access and transactions within the crypto ecosystem.
Wallet Seed Phrase A wallet seed phrase, also known as a mnemonic phrase, is a series of randomly generated words used to back up and restore a cryptocurrency wallet. It serves as a secure and convenient way to access and recover the wallet’s private keys and funds.
Waltonchain Waltonchain is a blockchain-based platform designed to create a reliable and efficient supply chain management system. It combines blockchain technology with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to track and manage the flow of goods throughout the supply chain process. By utilizing RFID tags, Waltonchain enables real-time tracking and authentication of products, making it easier to verify their authenticity and trace their origins. The platform also offers features such as smart contracts and decentralized data exchange, which enhance transparency and trust among participants in the supply chain. Overall, Waltonchain aims to revolutionize the supply chain industry by improving efficiency, reducing costs, and ensuring the integrity of products.
Wash Trade A wash trade refers to a type of transaction where the same entity simultaneously buys and sells a financial asset without actually changing its ownership. The purpose of a wash trade is not to make a profit, but rather to manipulate the market by artificially inflating the volume of trades and creating the illusion of stronger demand or supply. Wash trades are often used for illegal activities such as evading taxes or manipulating market prices.
Waves In the world of crypto, “Waves” refers to a decentralized blockchain platform that enables users to create, issue, and transfer digital assets. It provides a user-friendly interface and smart contract functionality, making it easier for individuals and businesses to participate in the crypto economy.
Wax In the context of crypto, “WAX” refers to a blockchain-based platform that facilitates the creation, buying, and selling of virtual items, such as in-game assets and collectibles. It aims to provide a secure and decentralized marketplace for digital goods, enabling users to trade and monetize their virtual possessions.
Weak Hands Weak hands refers to investors who are easily influenced by market fluctuations and tend to sell their holdings hastily during price declines, often resulting in losses due to a lack of long-term commitment or resilience.
Web2 (Web 2.0) Web2 refers to the current phase of the internet where users primarily consume content and interact on centralized platforms, such as social media or e-commerce websites. Web2 represents the traditional online landscape that lacks the decentralized and peer-to-peer nature of blockchain technology.
Web3 (Web 3.0) Web3 refers to the next phase of the internet, driven by blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies, where users have enhanced control over their data, engage in decentralized applications (dApps), and participate in peer-to-peer transactions without relying on intermediaries, fostering a more open, transparent, and user-centric digital environment.
Web 3.0 Web 3.0 refers to the next generation of the internet, where the interaction between users and online platforms is more decentralized, secure, and private. Unlike Web 2.0, which focused on user-generated content and centralized platforms, Web 3.0 aims to empower users to have more control over their data and online identities. Key technologies associated with Web 3.0 include blockchain, decentralized applications (dApps), smart contracts, and decentralized storage. These technologies allow for peer-to-peer transactions, improved security, and the removal of intermediaries, leading to a more open and user-centric internet experience.
Wei Wei is the smallest unit of ether, the cryptocurrency used on the Ethereum blockchain. It is named after Wei Dai, a computer scientist known for his contributions to cryptography and cryptocurrency. One ether is equal to 10^18 wei.
Wen Lambo Wen Lambo, short for “When will you buy a Lamborghini?”, is a slang term used in the cryptocurrency community to express the desire or anticipation of significant price gains in a cryptocurrency investment, with the goal of affording a Lamborghini luxury car. It reflects the speculative nature and aspirations of wealth associated with crypto investments.
Wen Moon Wen Moon is a slang term used in the cryptocurrency community to express the hope or expectation of a significant increase in the price or value (the value going “to the moon”) of a cryptocurrency, often referring to reaching new all-time highs or experiencing a bullish market trend.
Whale A “whale” in the context of cryptocurrency refers to an individual or entity that owns a significant amount of a particular cryptocurrency. Whales are known for holding a large portion of a cryptocurrency’s total supply, which can potentially give them considerable influence over the market. Their actions, such as buying or selling large amounts of a cryptocurrency, can cause significant price fluctuations. Whales are often closely watched by other traders and investors due to their potential impact on the market.
Whale Club An online forum where Whales organize investment groups
White Paper A white paper is a detailed report proposing a solution to a problem, often used to introduce new ideas, products, or services to potential investors or customers. In the legislative process, white papers can help shape new laws or regulations related to a particular industry or technology. One famous example is the white paper written by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, that introduced the concept of blockchain technology, leading to the creation of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.
Whitelist In the context of cryptocurrency, a whitelist is a list of approved addresses or entities that are allowed to participate in a particular token sale or Initial Coin Offering (ICO). The whitelist is usually created by the project team to limit participation and prevent fraud or unwanted participants.
Whitepaper A Whitepaper refers to a document that outlines the details and specifications of a specific cryptocurrency project or technology. It serves as an informational and educational resource for investors, developers, and the general public. Typically, a Whitepaper provides an in-depth analysis of a cryptocurrency’s underlying technology, its purpose, goals, and potential use cases. It often includes technical explanations, algorithms, protocols, and any unique features that set the cryptocurrency apart from others. The document may also discuss the project’s roadmap, team members, and the potential benefits it offers to users.
Wrapped Bitcoin Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) is a type of token that represents Bitcoin (BTC) on the Ethereum blockchain. It is an ERC-20 token that is backed by an equivalent amount of real Bitcoin held in custody by a centralized custodian. By wrapping Bitcoin, users can access the benefits and features of the Ethereum network while still having exposure to the value of Bitcoin. This allows Bitcoin holders to participate in decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, smart contracts, and other Ethereum-based services that were previously inaccessible to them. The process of wrapping Bitcoin involves depositing Bitcoin with a custodian and receiving an equivalent amount of WBTC in return. This WBTC can then be used within the Ethereum ecosystem, such as for trading, lending, or providing liquidity on decentralized exchanges or lending platforms. Wrapped Bitcoin aims to bridge the gap between Bitcoin and Ethereum, enabling users to combine the liquidity and market cap of Bitcoin with the flexibility and programmability of the Ethereum blockchain.
Wrapped Token A Wrapped Token is a cryptocurrency pegged to the value of another asset, created by locking up the original crypto asset and issuing a new token that represents its value on a different blockchain. They are designed to enable the transfer of value between different blockchains, allowing for greater liquidity and flexibility in the crypto market.
Wrench Attack A wrench attack refers to a method of hacking or gaining unauthorized access to an encrypted message or data by using physical force. In simpler terms, it involves threatening or physically attacking a person or group until they reveal a password or other sensitive information that can be used to access a system or encrypted data.


Yellow Paper A document similar to that of the White Paper that provides in-depth details about the Protocol.
Yield Farming Yield farming refers to the act of staking or depositing cryptocurrency assets into a decentralized finance (DeFi) platform in order to earn rewards or interest. Essentially, users lock up their crypto assets as collateral to provide liquidity for DeFi protocols. In exchange, they receive additional tokens or fees generated by the protocol.
Yieldfarming Yield farming is a term used in the world of decentralized finance (DeFi) that refers to the process of earning a yield, or return, on one’s cryptocurrency holdings by participating in various DeFi protocols. It typically involves providing liquidity to decentralized exchanges or lending platforms by locking up or staking one’s cryptocurrencies in smart contracts. In return for supplying this liquidity, users are rewarded with additional tokens, interest, or fees generated by the protocol. Yield farming allows users to earn passive income on their crypto assets, but it also carries risks associated with smart contract vulnerabilities and market volatility.
YOLO (you only live once) YOLO, an acronym for “You Only Live Once,” is a term used in cryptocurrency to describe a high-risk investment approach where individuals allocate a significant portion of their funds to potentially volatile assets, aiming for substantial gains.


Zcash Zcash is a decentralized cryptocurrency that provides enhanced privacy and anonymity for its users. It was created as an extension of the Bitcoin protocol, with the added feature of shielded transactions. These shielded transactions utilize zero-knowledge proofs to ensure that transaction details, such as the sender, recipient, and amount sent, remain confidential. Zcash aims to give individuals control over their financial privacy while still maintaining the security and decentralization of a blockchain network.
Zcoin Zcoin is a privacy-focused cryptocurrency and blockchain platform that aims to enhance the privacy and anonymity of digital transactions. It utilizes zero-knowledge proofs and other cryptographic techniques to enable users to transact with increased privacy and fungibility. By allowing individuals to break the link between their transaction history and real-world identities, Zcoin aims to provide a more secure and private way to conduct financial transactions. The primary goal of Zcoin is to offer a decentralized and privacy-preserving alternative to traditional financial systems.
Zencash Zencash is a privacy-oriented cryptocurrency and blockchain platform that aims to provide secure and anonymous transactions. It focuses on preserving the privacy and security of user data and offers features such as encrypted messaging and private transactions. Zencash also emphasizes decentralized governance and community involvement in decision-making processes.
Zero Confirmation Transaction A zero confirmation transaction (also known as “0-conf transaction”) is a type of cryptocurrency transaction that has been broadcasted to the network but has not been confirmed and included in a block by a miner yet. It means that the transaction has not been added to the blockchain yet, and thus, not yet fully validated. Zero confirmation transactions are often used to quickly and effortlessly transfer small amounts of cryptocurrencies. However, it is important to note that zero confirmation transactions are not final and are considered less secure than confirmed transactions.
Zero Knowledge Proof Zero Knowledge Proof refers to a cryptographic concept that allows one party to prove to another party the validity of a statement, without revealing any additional information apart from the fact that the statement is indeed true. In other words, it enables the verification of data or knowledge without exposing the actual content or details of that knowledge. This notion of proof provides a high level of privacy and confidentiality while still allowing for trust and authentication in various applications such as secure communication, authentication protocols, and privacy-preserving transactions in blockchain technologies.
Zilliqa Zilliqa is a blockchain platform that aims to address the scalability issues faced by existing blockchain networks. It uses a novel consensus mechanism called sharding, which allows for parallel processing of transactions. This means that as the network expands, the transaction speed increases, making it capable of handling a greater volume of transactions compared to traditional blockchains. Zilliqa also incorporates smart contracts, enabling developers to create decentralized applications on the platform. Overall, Zilliqa aims to provide a scalable and efficient infrastructure for the future of decentralized applications and blockchain technology.
Zk-SNARKs Zk-SNARKs, short for Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge, is a cryptographic protocol used in blockchain technology to provide privacy and confidentiality. It enables the verification of transactions without revealing any sensitive information, making it a powerful tool for ensuring privacy in decentralized systems.

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